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Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, Saint Helena

Holt H.R.,London Center for Neglected Tropical Disease Research | Holt H.R.,Lane College | Mumba C.,University of Zambia | Napier G.B.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) is one of the biggest constraints to livestock production and a threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to optimise the allocation of resources for AAT control, decision makers need to target geographic areas where control programmes are most likely to be successful and sustainable and select control methods that will maximise the benefits obtained from resources invested. Methods: The overall approach to classifying cattle-owning communities in terms of AAT vulnerability was based on the selection of key variables collected through field surveys in five sub-Saharan Africa countries followed by a formal Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to identify factors explaining the variations between areas. To categorise the communities in terms of AAT vulnerability profiles, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) was performed. Results: Three clusters of community vulnerability profiles were identified based on farmers' beliefs with respect to trypanosomiasis control within the five countries studied. Cluster 1 communities, mainly identified in Cameroon, reported constant AAT burden, had large trypanosensitive (average herd size = 57) communal grazing cattle herds. Livestock (cattle and small ruminants) were reportedly the primary source of income in the majority of these cattle-owning households (87.0 %). Cluster 2 communities identified mainly in Burkina Faso and Zambia, with some Ethiopian communities had moderate herd sizes (average = 16) and some trypanotolerant breeds (31.7 %) practicing communal grazing. In these communities there were some concerns regarding the development of trypanocide resistance. Crops were the primary income source while communities in this cluster incurred some financial losses due to diminished draft power. The third cluster contained mainly Ugandan and Ethiopian communities which were mixed farmers with smaller herd sizes (average = 8). The costs spent diagnosing and treating AAT were moderate here. Conclusions: Understanding how cattle-owners are affected by AAT and their efforts to manage the disease is critical to the design of suitable locally-adapted control programmes. It is expected that the results could inform priority setting and the development of tailored recommendations for AAT control strategies. © 2016 Holt et al. Source

Lynen G.,Vetagro Tanzania Ltd | Yrjo-Koskinen A.E.,Lane College | Bakuname C.,Netherlands Development Organization | Di Giulio G.,Vetagro Tanzania Ltd | And 8 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

East Coast fever (ECF) causes considerable mortality and production losses in the Tanzania smallholder dairy sector and limits the introduction of improved dairy breeds in areas where the disease is present. The infection and treatment method (ITM) was adopted by smallholder dairy farms for ECF immunisation in Hanang and Handeni districts of Tanzania. This study recorded incidence rates for ECF and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) for ECF-immunised and non-immunised cattle between 1997 and 2000. Approximately 80% of smallholder households from both sites (n = 167) participated in this longitudinal study, with immunisations carried out at the request of the livestock owners. Efficacy of ITM for preventing ECF cases in these crossbred dairy cattle was estimated at 97.6%, while that for preventing ECF deaths was 97.9%. One percent of the cattle developed clinical ECF as a result of immunisation. Since ECF immunisation permits a reduction in acaricide use, an increase in other TBDs is a potential concern. Sixty-three percent of farmers continued to use the same acaricide after immunisation, with 80% of these reducing the frequency of applications. Overall, 78% of farmers increased the acaricide application interval after immunisation beyond that recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in annual savings in the region of USD 4.77 per animal. No statistical difference was observed between the immunised and non-immunised animals in the incidence of non-ECF TBDs. However, immunised animals that succumbed to these diseases showed fewer case fatalities. ITM would therefore appear to be a suitable method for ECF control in Tanzania's smallholder dairy sector. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Mugwagwa J.,Open University Milton Keynes | Kingiri A.,African Center for Technology Studies | Muraguri L.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development | Year: 2014

Using case studies on development and implementation of biotechnology governance frameworks in four African countries, we introduce and build the case for a policy kinetics (PK) approach to analysing and unpacking complex policy processes. The PK approach proposes a comprehensive approach to understanding how various 'pieces of the policy puzzle' interact in arenas to facilitate or constrain attainment of desired outputs. Borrowing from reaction kinetics in chemistry, which is the study of rates of chemical processes, our argument is that complex policy processes can indeed be broken down into reactants, processes, catalysts and outputs, all interacting at various levels in space and time. We also bring attention to the presence of various intermediate outputs of processes with the potential to facilitate or constrain the process, including bringing a shift to the direction, duration and pace of the overall process. The presence or potential emergence of components that mimic process catalysts is another area that this approach brings to the attention of policy actors. By engaging with what happens at the level where the various components of a policy process interface with each other, we argue that this model is a useful tool for unpacking, understanding and influencing not only the development and implementation of biotechnology governance mechanisms in Africa, but other policy arenas elsewhere. © 2014 Intellect Ltd Article. Source

Babo Martins S.,Lane College | Di Giulio G.,Vetagro Tanzania Ltd | Lynen G.,Vetagro Tanzania Ltd | Peters A.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed | Rushton J.,Lane College
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

A field trial was carried out in a Maasai homestead to assess the impact of East Coast Fever (ECF) immunisation by the infection and treatment method (ITM) with the Muguga Cocktail on the occurrence of this disease in Tanzanian pastoralist systems. These data were further used in partial budgeting and decision analysis to evaluate and compare the value of the control strategy. Overall, ITM was shown to be a cost-effective control option. While one ECF case was registered in the immunised group, 24 cases occurred amongst non-immunised calves. A significant negative association between immunisation and ECF cases occurrence was observed (p≤ 0.001). ECF mortality rate was also lower in the immunised group. However, as anti-theilerial treatment was given to all diseased calves, no significant negative association between immunisation and ECF mortality was found. Both groups showed an overall similar immunological pattern with high and increasing percentages of seropositive calves throughout the study. This, combined with the temporal distribution of cases in the non-immunised group, suggested the establishment of endemic stability. Furthermore, the economic analysis showed that ITM generated a profit estimated to be 7250 TZS (1 USD = 1300 TZS) per vaccinated calf, and demonstrated that it was a better control measure than natural infection and subsequent treatment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dungu B.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed | Donadeu M.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed | Bouloy M.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Developments in Biologicals | Year: 2013

Vaccination continues to be the most effective way to control Rift Valley fever (RVF), a zoonotic insect-borne viral disease of livestock. The irregular, cyclical and persistent nature of RVF in its occurrence in enzootic situations suggests that the vaccination strategy to be considered for these regions should be different from what is envisaged for free from risk regions. Currently available RVF vaccines have been extensively used for the control of the disease. However, these vaccines have shortcomings that have encouraged many research groups to develop new vaccine candidates that would address a large number of the current challenges, and be suitable for use both in disease-free regions and in different contingency and emergency preparedness strategies. The characteristics of different RVF vaccines and vaccination strategies are discussed in this report. Copyright © 2013 by the International Alliance for Biological Standardization (IABS), Carouge-Geneva (Switzerland). Source

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