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Tchamdja E.,Direction de lElevage | Kulo A.E.,University of Lomé | Akoda K.,Ecole Inter Etats des science et Medecine Veterinaires de Dakar | Teko-Agbo A.,Ecole Inter Etats des science et Medecine Veterinaires de Dakar | And 16 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2016

Trypanocidal drugs remain the most accessible and thus commonly used means of controlling tsetse transmitted animal African trypanosomosis. In Togo, trypanocides are sold on official as well as unofficial markets, but the quality of these trypanocides is undocumented so a drug quality assessment study was conducted from May 2013 to June 2014. Trypanocides supplied by European, Indian and Chinese pharmaceutical companies and sold on official and unofficial markets in Togo were purchased. In total fifty-two trypanocides were obtained, 24 of these samples from official markets and 28 from unofficial markets made up of a total of 36 diminazene diaceturate and 16 isometamidium chloride hydrochloride samples. The samples were analysed in the reference laboratory of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), Laboratory for the Control of Veterinary Medicines (LACOMEV) in Dakar which uses galenic testing and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing as standard reference analysis methods. The results revealed a high proportion of trypanocides of sub-standard quality on the Togolese market: 40% were non-compliant to these quality reference standards. All of the HPLC non-compliant samples contained lower amounts of active ingredient compared to the concentration specified on the packaging. Non-compliance was higher in samples from the unofficial (53.57%) than from the official markets (25%; p = 0.04).The main drug manufacturers, mostly of French origin in the study area, supply quality drugs through the official legal distribution circuit. Products of other origins mostly found on illegal markets present a significantly lower quality. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Holt H.R.,London Center for Neglected Tropical Disease Research | Holt H.R.,Lane College | Mumba C.,University of Zambia | Napier G.B.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) is one of the biggest constraints to livestock production and a threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to optimise the allocation of resources for AAT control, decision makers need to target geographic areas where control programmes are most likely to be successful and sustainable and select control methods that will maximise the benefits obtained from resources invested. Methods: The overall approach to classifying cattle-owning communities in terms of AAT vulnerability was based on the selection of key variables collected through field surveys in five sub-Saharan Africa countries followed by a formal Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to identify factors explaining the variations between areas. To categorise the communities in terms of AAT vulnerability profiles, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) was performed. Results: Three clusters of community vulnerability profiles were identified based on farmers' beliefs with respect to trypanosomiasis control within the five countries studied. Cluster 1 communities, mainly identified in Cameroon, reported constant AAT burden, had large trypanosensitive (average herd size = 57) communal grazing cattle herds. Livestock (cattle and small ruminants) were reportedly the primary source of income in the majority of these cattle-owning households (87.0 %). Cluster 2 communities identified mainly in Burkina Faso and Zambia, with some Ethiopian communities had moderate herd sizes (average = 16) and some trypanotolerant breeds (31.7 %) practicing communal grazing. In these communities there were some concerns regarding the development of trypanocide resistance. Crops were the primary income source while communities in this cluster incurred some financial losses due to diminished draft power. The third cluster contained mainly Ugandan and Ethiopian communities which were mixed farmers with smaller herd sizes (average = 8). The costs spent diagnosing and treating AAT were moderate here. Conclusions: Understanding how cattle-owners are affected by AAT and their efforts to manage the disease is critical to the design of suitable locally-adapted control programmes. It is expected that the results could inform priority setting and the development of tailored recommendations for AAT control strategies. © 2016 Holt et al.


Mugwagwa J.,Open University Milton Keynes | Kingiri A.,African Center for Technology Studies | Muraguri L.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development | Year: 2014

Using case studies on development and implementation of biotechnology governance frameworks in four African countries, we introduce and build the case for a policy kinetics (PK) approach to analysing and unpacking complex policy processes. The PK approach proposes a comprehensive approach to understanding how various 'pieces of the policy puzzle' interact in arenas to facilitate or constrain attainment of desired outputs. Borrowing from reaction kinetics in chemistry, which is the study of rates of chemical processes, our argument is that complex policy processes can indeed be broken down into reactants, processes, catalysts and outputs, all interacting at various levels in space and time. We also bring attention to the presence of various intermediate outputs of processes with the potential to facilitate or constrain the process, including bringing a shift to the direction, duration and pace of the overall process. The presence or potential emergence of components that mimic process catalysts is another area that this approach brings to the attention of policy actors. By engaging with what happens at the level where the various components of a policy process interface with each other, we argue that this model is a useful tool for unpacking, understanding and influencing not only the development and implementation of biotechnology governance mechanisms in Africa, but other policy arenas elsewhere. © 2014 Intellect Ltd Article.


PubMed | London Center for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed and University of Zambia
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2016

Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) is one of the biggest constraints to livestock production and a threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. In order to optimise the allocation of resources for AAT control, decision makers need to target geographic areas where control programmes are most likely to be successful and sustainable and select control methods that will maximise the benefits obtained from resources invested.The overall approach to classifying cattle-owning communities in terms of AAT vulnerability was based on the selection of key variables collected through field surveys in five sub-Saharan Africa countries followed by a formal Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to identify factors explaining the variations between areas. To categorise the communities in terms of AAT vulnerability profiles, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) was performed.Three clusters of community vulnerability profiles were identified based on farmers beliefs with respect to trypanosomiasis control within the five countries studied. Cluster 1 communities, mainly identified in Cameroon, reported constant AAT burden, had large trypanosensitive (average herd size =57) communal grazing cattle herds. Livestock (cattle and small ruminants) were reportedly the primary source of income in the majority of these cattle-owning households (87.0%). Cluster 2 communities identified mainly in Burkina Faso and Zambia, with some Ethiopian communities had moderate herd sizes (average=16) and some trypanotolerant breeds (31.7%) practicing communal grazing. In these communities there were some concerns regarding the development of trypanocide resistance. Crops were the primary income source while communities in this cluster incurred some financial losses due to diminished draft power. The third cluster contained mainly Ugandan and Ethiopian communities which were mixed farmers with smaller herd sizes (average=8). The costs spent diagnosing and treating AAT were moderate here.Understanding how cattle-owners are affected by AAT and their efforts to manage the disease is critical to the design of suitable locally-adapted control programmes. It is expected that the results could inform priority setting and the development of tailored recommendations for AAT control strategies.


PubMed | Ecole Inter Etats des science et Medecine Veterinaires de Dakar, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Free University of Berlin, Veterinary Epidemiology and 5 more.
Type: | Journal: Preventive veterinary medicine | Year: 2016

Trypanocidal drugs remain the most accessible and thus commonly used means of controlling tsetse transmitted animal African trypanosomosis. In Togo, trypanocides are sold on official as well as unofficial markets, but the quality of these trypanocides is undocumented so a drug quality assessment study was conducted from May 2013 to June 2014. Trypanocides supplied by European, Indian and Chinese pharmaceutical companies and sold on official and unofficial markets in Togo were purchased. In total fifty-two trypanocides were obtained, 24 of these samples from official markets and 28 from unofficial markets made up of a total of 36 diminazene diaceturate and 16 isometamidium chloride hydrochloride samples. The samples were analysed in the reference laboratory of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), Laboratory for the Control of Veterinary Medicines (LACOMEV) in Dakar which uses galenic testing and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing as standard reference analysis methods. The results revealed a high proportion of trypanocides of sub-standard quality on the Togolese market: 40% were non-compliant to these quality reference standards. All of the HPLC non-compliant samples contained lower amounts of active ingredient compared to the concentration specified on the packaging. Non-compliance was higher in samples from the unofficial (53.57%) than from the official markets (25%; p=0.04).The main drug manufacturers, mostly of French origin in the study area, supply quality drugs through the official legal distribution circuit. Products of other origins mostly found on illegal markets present a significantly lower quality.


Tchamdja E.,British Petroleum | Kulo A.E.,University of Lomé | Akoda K.,Ecole Inter Etats des science et Medecine Veterinaires de Dakar | Teko-Agbo A.,Ecole Inter Etats des science et Medecine Veterinaires de Dakar | And 16 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2016

Trypanocidal drugs remain the most accessible and thus commonly used means of controlling tsetse transmitted animal African trypanosomosis. In Togo, trypanocides are sold on official as well as unofficial markets, but the quality of these trypanocides is undocumented so a drug quality assessment study was conducted from May 2013 to June 2014. Trypanocides supplied by European, Indian and Chinese pharmaceutical companies and sold on official and unofficial markets in Togo were purchased. In total fifty-two trypanocides were obtained, 24 of these samples from official markets and 28 from unofficial markets made up of a total of 36 diminazene diaceturate and 16 isometamidium chloride hydrochloride samples. The samples were analysed in the reference laboratory of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), Laboratory for the Control of Veterinary Medicines (LACOMEV) in Dakar which uses galenic testing and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing as standard reference analysis methods. The results revealed a high proportion of trypanocides of sub-standard quality on the Togolese market: 40% were non-compliant to these quality reference standards. All of the HPLC non-compliant samples contained lower amounts of active ingredient compared to the concentration specified on the packaging. Non-compliance was higher in samples from the unofficial (53.57%) than from the official markets (25%; p = 0.04).The main drug manufacturers, mostly of French origin in the study area, supply quality drugs through the official legal distribution circuit. Products of other origins mostly found on illegal markets present a significantly lower quality. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Dungu B.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed | Donadeu M.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed | Bouloy M.,Institute Pasteur Paris
Developments in Biologicals | Year: 2013

Vaccination continues to be the most effective way to control Rift Valley fever (RVF), a zoonotic insect-borne viral disease of livestock. The irregular, cyclical and persistent nature of RVF in its occurrence in enzootic situations suggests that the vaccination strategy to be considered for these regions should be different from what is envisaged for free from risk regions. Currently available RVF vaccines have been extensively used for the control of the disease. However, these vaccines have shortcomings that have encouraged many research groups to develop new vaccine candidates that would address a large number of the current challenges, and be suitable for use both in disease-free regions and in different contingency and emergency preparedness strategies. The characteristics of different RVF vaccines and vaccination strategies are discussed in this report. Copyright © 2013 by the International Alliance for Biological Standardization (IABS), Carouge-Geneva (Switzerland).


Babo Martins S.,Lane College | Di Giulio G.,VetAgro Tanzania Ltd | Lynen G.,VetAgro Tanzania Ltd | Peters A.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GalvMed | Rushton J.,Lane College
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

A field trial was carried out in a Maasai homestead to assess the impact of East Coast Fever (ECF) immunisation by the infection and treatment method (ITM) with the Muguga Cocktail on the occurrence of this disease in Tanzanian pastoralist systems. These data were further used in partial budgeting and decision analysis to evaluate and compare the value of the control strategy. Overall, ITM was shown to be a cost-effective control option. While one ECF case was registered in the immunised group, 24 cases occurred amongst non-immunised calves. A significant negative association between immunisation and ECF cases occurrence was observed (p≤ 0.001). ECF mortality rate was also lower in the immunised group. However, as anti-theilerial treatment was given to all diseased calves, no significant negative association between immunisation and ECF mortality was found. Both groups showed an overall similar immunological pattern with high and increasing percentages of seropositive calves throughout the study. This, combined with the temporal distribution of cases in the non-immunised group, suggested the establishment of endemic stability. Furthermore, the economic analysis showed that ITM generated a profit estimated to be 7250 TZS (1 USD = 1300 TZS) per vaccinated calf, and demonstrated that it was a better control measure than natural infection and subsequent treatment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


GIORDANI F.,University of Glasgow | MORRISON L.J.,Roslin Institute | ROWAN T.G.,Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed | DE KONING H.P.,University of Glasgow | BARRETT M.P.,University of Glasgow
Parasitology | Year: 2016

Pathogenic animal trypanosomes affecting livestock have represented a major constraint to agricultural development in Africa for centuries, and their negative economic impact is increasing in South America and Asia. Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis represent the main means of control. However, research into new trypanocides has remained inadequate for decades, leading to a situation where the few compounds available are losing efficacy due to the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current options available for the treatment and prophylaxis of the animal trypanosomiases, with a special focus on the problem of resistance. The key issues surrounding the main economically important animal trypanosome species and the diseases they cause are also presented. As new investment becomes available to develop improved tools to control the animal trypanosomiases, we stress that efforts should be directed towards a better understanding of the biology of the relevant parasite species and strains, to identify new drug targets and interrogate resistance mechanisms. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


PubMed | Roslin Institute, Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines GALVmed and University of Glasgow
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Parasitology | Year: 2016

Pathogenic animal trypanosomes affecting livestock have represented a major constraint to agricultural development in Africa for centuries, and their negative economic impact is increasing in South America and Asia. Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis represent the main means of control. However, research into new trypanocides has remained inadequate for decades, leading to a situation where the few compounds available are losing efficacy due to the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current options available for the treatment and prophylaxis of the animal trypanosomiases, with a special focus on the problem of resistance. The key issues surrounding the main economically important animal trypanosome species and the diseases they cause are also presented. As new investment becomes available to develop improved tools to control the animal trypanosomiases, we stress that efforts should be directed towards a better understanding of the biology of the relevant parasite species and strains, to identify new drug targets and interrogate resistance mechanisms.

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