Powell K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Han D.,National Tuberculosis Program |
Hung N.V.,National Tuberculosis Program |
Vu T.,LIFE GAP VAAC |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2011
SETTING: Two general hospitals in Viet Nam. OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection associated with hospital employment. DESIGN: During October-December 2009, we performed a cross-sectional study of hospital personnel and, for community comparison groups, staff from nearby schools. We tested for TB infection using the tuberculin skin test; an induration ≥ 10 mm indicated TB infection. RESULTS: Of 956 hospital personnel, 380 (40%) had TB infection compared to 40 (26%) of 155 school personnel. Hospital personnel had twice the odds of TB infection compared with school personnel (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3-3.0) after adjustment for age and sex. Compared to hospital administrative staff, the odds of TB infection were similar among clinical staff (OR 1.0, 95%CI 0.6-1.3), clinical support staff (OR 0.9, 95%CI 0.5-1.6) and auxiliary staff (OR 1.1, 95%CI 0.6-2.0) at the hospitals. No additional infection risk was detected in highrisk departments (OR 1.1, 95%CI 0.6-2.0). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital personnel are at increased risk of TB infection. Among hospital personnel, risk was independent of job or department, suggesting that personnel are commonly at risk and that improvements in infection control are needed throughout hospitals. © 2011 The Union.
Owusu-Edusei K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Tao G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Gift T.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Wang A.,National Center for Women and Childrens Health |
And 8 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2014
Background: In China, recent rises in syphilis and HIV cases have increased the focus on preventing mother-to-child transmission of these infections. We assess the health and economic outcomes of different strategies of prenatal HIV and syphilis screening from the local health department's perspective. Methods; A Markov cohort decision analysis model was used to estimate the health and economic outcomes of pregnancy using disease prevalence and cost data from local sources and, if unavailable, from published literature. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included induced abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, neonatal death, congenital syphilis in live-born infants, and perinatal HIV infection. We examined 4 screening strategies: no screening, screening for HIV only, for syphilis only, and for both HIV and syphilis. We estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for each health outcome using life expectancies and infections for mothers and newborns. Results: For a simulated cohort of 10,000 pregnant women (0.07% prevalence for HIV and 0.25% for syphilis; 10% of HIV-positives were coinfected with syphilis), the estimated costs per DALY prevented were as follows: syphilis-only, $168; HIV-and-syphilis, $359; and HIV-only, $5636. The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio if an existing HIV-only strategy added syphilis screening (i.e., move from the HIV-only strategy to the HIV-and-syphilis strategy) was $140 per additional DALY prevented. Conclusions: Given the increasing prevalence of syphilis and HIV among pregnant women in China, prenatal HIV screening programs that also include syphilis screening are likely to be substantially more cost-effective than HIV screening alone and prevent many more adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved.