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Nuanthaisong U.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Nuanthaisong U.,Bangkok University | Abraham N.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Goldman H.B.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute
Urology | Year: 2014

Objective To determine the occurrence of all treatment-related adverse events (AEs), especially life-threatening AEs, after the injection of a cumulative dose of >360 units of onabotulinumtoxinA for multiple indications (neurogenic detrusor overactivity, lower limb spasticity, and so forth) within a 3-month interval.Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who received >360 units of onabotulinumtoxinA within a 3-month interval, with at least 1 urologic indication for injection, between January 1, 2002 and January 1, 2013. The rate of treatment-related AE up to 8 days after injection and life-threatening AE up to 90 days after injection was compared between the injection sessions below and exceeding the maximum dosage recommendations.Results Thirteen patients met the study criteria. Eleven were female patients and had a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Sixty-five injection sessions involved >360 units of onabotulinumtoxinA administered within a 90-day interval. Median interval between injections was 54 days (interquartile range [IQR], 30-71 days) and median dose administered was 800 units (IQR, 600-1000 units). Seventy injection sessions involved <360 units of onabotulinumtoxinA administered >90 days after prior injection. Median interval between these injections was 113 days (IQR, 97-158 days) and median dose administered was 200 units (IQR, 100-300 units). The maximum cumulative dosage injected was 1900 units (1500 units for lower extremities and 400 units for bladder). This patient did not experience any AE. There was a total of 6 AEs (general and/or extremity weakness or leg pain) that occurred in 4 patients, of a total of 183 injection sessions. These AEs all eventually resolved. There were no life-threatening AEs in either group.Conclusion This is the first report of patients receiving >360 cumulative units of onabotulinumtoxinA within a 3-month interval for multiple indications. There were no life-threatening AEs. This study provides preliminary data on administration of high doses of onabotulinumtoxinA for multiple indications. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Klein E.A.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Thompson I.M.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
World Journal of Urology | Year: 2012

Objectives: To place chemoprevention of prostate cancer in current clinical context. Methods: Review of recently published updates of large, randomized, controlled trials of primary chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Results: With extended post-intervention follow-up, SELECT demonstrated a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer relative to placebo in the vitamin E alone arm. Two other trials in men with high-grade PIN demonstrated no effect of selenium alone or in combination with soy and lycopene. Trials of 5α-reductase inhibitors show an approximate 25% relative risk reduction in men at average risk and in those with an "elevated" PSA and prior negative biopsy, but adoption of these agents in clinical practice has been limited by concerns over an apparently increased risk of high-grade disease. Conclusions: Primary prevention of prostate cancer remains an attractive goal because of its prevalence and treatment-related morbidity. Neither selenium nor vitamin E prevents prostate cancer. The benefit/risk ratio for 5α-reductase inhibitors can be improved by limiting their use to men at high risk. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Aboumarzouk O.M.,Royal Bournemouth Hospital | Aboumarzouk O.M.,Islamic University of Gaza | Monga M.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Kata S.G.,Ninewells Hospital and Medical School | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Endourology | Year: 2012

Background and Purpose: Urinary stones >2cm are traditionally managed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Recently, flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy) (FURSL) has been used to manage them with comparable results. In a comparative study of renal stones between 2 and 3cm, FURSL was reported to need less second-stage procedures and be just as effective as PCNL. Our purpose was to review the literature for renal stones >2cm managed by ureteroscopy and holmium lasertripsy. Materials and Methods: A systematic review and quantitative meta-analysis was performed using studies identified by a literature search from 1990s (the first reported large renal stones treated ureteroscopically) to August 2011. All English language articles reporting on a minimum of 10 patients treated with FURSL for renal stones >2cm were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each study. The data of studies with comparable results were included into a meta-analysis. Results: In nine studies, 445 patients (460 renal units) were reportedly treated with FURSL. The mean operative time was 82.5 minutes (28-215min). The mean stone-free rate was 93.7% (77%-96.7%), with an average of 1.6 procedures per patient. The mean stone size was 2.5cm. An overall complication rate was 10.1%. Major complications developed in 21 (5.3%) patients and minor complications developed in 19 (4.8%) patients. A subgroup analysis shows that FURSL has a 95.7% stone-free rate with stones 2-3cm and 84.6% in those >3cm (P=0.01), with a minor complication rate of 14.3% and 15.4%, respectively, and a major complication rate of 0% and 11.5%, respectively. Conclusion: In experienced hands, FURSL can successfully treat patients with stones >2cm with a high stone-free rate and a low complication rate. Although the studies are from high-volume experienced centers and may not be sufficient to alter everyday routine practice, this review has shown that the efficacy of FURSL allows an alternative to PCNL. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Abd El-Latif A.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Watts K.E.,Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute | Elson P.,Taussig Cancer Institute | Fergany A.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Hansel D.E.,Cleveland Clinic
Journal of Urology | Year: 2013

Purpose: We determined the ability of bladder biopsy and transurethral resection of the bladder to accurately predict bladder cancer variants on radical cystectomy since certain variants may affect prognosis and treatment. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the records of 302 patients who underwent biopsy and/or transurethral resection of the bladder followed by radical cystectomy from 2008 to 2010. The frequency of variant morphology and the sensitivity of the precystectomy material was determined using pathological findings at radical cystectomy as the final result. Results: Bladder cancer variants were identified in 159 patients (53%) on initial biopsy/transurethral resection and/or final pathological evaluation at radical cystectomy. The most common variant was urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation in 72 of 159 patients (45%), followed by micropapillary urothelial carcinoma in 41 (26%). In 9 patients (6%) variant morphology was identified only on biopsy/transurethral resection bladder and not on final radical cystectomy pathological assessment. The remaining 150 patients (94%) showed variant morphology on radical cystectomy with (79 or 53%) or without (71 or 47%) variant morphology on the preceding biopsy/transurethral resection. The sensitivity of variant detection showed a broad range by variant subtype. Overall, initial biopsy/transurethral resection sensitivity was 39% for predicting variant morphology on radical cystectomy. Conclusions: Overall sensitivity for predicting bladder cancer variants from biopsy/transurethral resection of the bladder sampling is relatively low. This is likely due to sampling and tumor heterogeneity rather than to an inaccurate pathological diagnosis. Additional predictive markers of variant morphology may be useful to determine which tumors contain aggressive variants that may alter outcomes or therapy. © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

Purysko A.S.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Leao Filho H.M.,HCor Hospital Do Coracao | Herts B.R.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute
Seminars in Oncology | Year: 2012

Imaging has an ancillary but important role in the detection, staging, and follow-up of bladder cancer. Computed tomography urography (CTU) has widely replaced intravenous urography (IVU) and is currently the imaging modality most commonly used for the initial evaluation of patients with or suspected of having bladder tumors, as CTU allows a fast and comprehensive evaluation of the urinary tract in a single exam. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords better soft tissue contrast, which allows for more accurate staging than can be achieved with other imaging modalities; the role of MRI in bladder cancer is expected to grow. Despite myriad technical advances, imaging of the bladder has several limitations and technical challenges. The performance of the common and some promising newer imaging modalities in the evaluation of bladder cancer are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Nguyen C.T.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Kattan M.W.,Cleveland Clinic
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2012

Greater understanding of the biology and epidemiology of prostate cancer in the last several decades have led to significant advances in its management. Prostate cancer is now detected in greater numbers at lower stages of disease and is amenable to multiple forms of efficacious treatment. However, there is a lack of conclusive data demonstrating a definitive mortality benefit from this earlier diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is likely due to the treatment of a large proportion of indolent cancers that would have had little adverse impact on health or lifespan if left alone. Due to this overtreatment phenomenon, active surveillance with delayed intervention is gaining traction as a viable management approach in contemporary practice. The ability to distinguish clinically insignificant cancers from those with a high risk of progression and/or lethality is critical to the appropriate selection of patients for surveillance protocols versus immediate intervention. This chapter will review the ability of various prediction models, including risk groupings and nomograms, to predict indolent disease and determine their role in the contemporary management of clinically localized prostate cancer. © 2012 AJA, SIMM & SJTU. All rights reserved.

Tripp D.A.,Queen's University | Nickel J.C.,Queen's University | Shoskes D.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Koljuskov A.,Queen's University
World Journal of Urology | Year: 2013

Objectives: There are two objectives: (1) Examine quality of life (QoL) and mood between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) patients and spouses over a 2-year period; (2) Longitudinally assess CP/CPPS patient pain, disability, and pain catastrophizing over a 2-year period. Methods: Forty-four CP/CPPS diagnosed men and their spouses participated. Patients completed demographics, QoL, depression, anxiety, pain, disability, and catastrophizing across the study. Spouses completed QoL, depression, and anxiety. Patients/spouses were not different in education, but patients were older (49 years; SD = 9.56). The average symptom duration was 8.68 (SD = 7.61). Couples were married or common law, and majority of patients were employed. Due to attrition, approximately 21 couples provided analyzable data. Results: Patients and spouses physical QoL did not statistically differ over time from one another, and both increased over the study period. Mental QoL increased over time, but patients reported lower QoL. Patients reported more depression and anxiety, but both measures remained stable over time for spouses and patients. Finally, patient only analyses showed that disability did decrease over time from a high at 6 months, but pain and catastrophizing showed stability over the 2 years. Conclusions: Patients reported worse mental QoL, depression, and anxiety compared to spouses, and spouses reported significant stable levels of depression and anxiety similar to patients. Further, patient catastrophizing, pain, and disability did not reduce over the 2-year assessment period. These results provide further impetus for the development and implementation of mental health strategies alongside continued medical efforts in couples suffering from CP/CPPS. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Nickel J.C.,Queen's University | Shoskes D.A.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute
BJU International | Year: 2010

• Our traditional approach to managing the chronic prostatitis (CP) syndromes has not been very successful for many of our patients. • Our developing understanding of CP/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) as a heterogeneous syndrome rather than a homogenous disease has allowed us to develop treatment strategies based on individual patient characteristics. • By considering each patient as a unique individual and tailoring treatments to a specific patient's clinical 'phenotype' we improve our therapeutic outcomes. © 2010 BJU International.

King A.B.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute | Goldman H.B.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute
Current Urology Reports | Year: 2014

Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women has received less focus in the past, as compared with BOO in men; however, more recently, studies have further examined BOO and voiding dysfunction in women to define the various etiologies, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies. The differential diagnosis in women is broad and includes anatomic, neurologic, and functional etiologies. This review focuses on the functional etiologies, including dysfunctional voiding, Fowler 's syndrome, and primary bladder neck obstruction in adult women. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.

Montague D.K.,Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute
Advances in Urology | Year: 2012

The published evidence concerning the safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction for implantation of the current model of the artificial urinary sphincter (AS 800) in men with post prostatectomy urinary incontinence was the objective of this review. A Pub Med English language literature search from 1995 to 2011 was performed. A majority of men who undergo AUS implantation for post prostatectomy urinary incontinence achieve satisfactory results (0 to 1 pad per day). Infection rates range from 0.46 to 7%, cuff erosion rates range from 3.8 to 10%, and urethral atrophy ranges from 9.6 to 11.4%. Kaplan-Meier 5 year projections for freedom from any reoperation were 50% for a small series and 79.4% for a larger series. Kaplan-Meier projections for freedom from mechanical failure were 79% at 5 years and 72% at 10 years. In another series 10 year projections for freedom from mechanical failure were 64%. Although the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is the gold standard for the treatment of this disorder, most men will continue to need at least one pad per day for protection, and they are subject to a significant chance of future AUS revision or replacement. Copyright © 2012 Drogo K. Montague.

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