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East Glenville, WV, United States

Glenville State College is a public four-year college located in Glenville, a town in the rural north-central part of the U.S. state of West Virginia. Wikipedia.

Chandler J.L.,West Virginia University | McGraw J.B.,West Virginia University | Bennington C.,Stetson University | Shaver G.R.,Ecosystems Center | And 2 more authors.
Population Ecology | Year: 2015

Moist tussock tundra, dominated by the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum L., covers approximately 3.36 × 108 km2 of arctic surface area along with large amounts of subarctic land area. Eriophorum vaginatum exhibits ecotypic differentiation along latitudinal gradients in Alaska. While ecotypic differentiation may be beneficial during periods of climate stability, it may be detrimental as climate changes, causing adaptational lag. Following harvest of a 30-year reciprocal transplant experiment, age-specific demographic data on E. vaginatum tillers were collected to parameterize a Leslie matrix. Yellow Taxi analysis, based on Tukey’s Jackknife, was used to determine mean pseudovalues of tiller population growth rate ($$\overline{{\phi_{i} }}$$ϕi¯) for four source populations of E. vaginatum tussocks that were transplanted to each of three gardens along a latitudinal gradient. Source populations responded differentially along the latitudinal gradient. Survival and daughter tiller production influenced differences seen at the mid-latitude garden, and the overall tiller population performance was generally improved by northward transplanting relative to southward transplanting. A comparison of home-source $$\overline{{\phi_{i} }}$$ϕi¯ and away-source $$\overline{{\phi_{i} }}$$ϕi¯ within the same transplant garden indicates no home-site advantage. Although populations were still growing when transplanted to home-sites ($$\overline{{\phi_{i} }}$$ϕi¯ = 1.056), tiller population growth rate increased as ΔGDD became more negative relative to the home site (i.e., as tussocks were transplanted north). These results imply that populations are affected by climate gradients in a manner consistent with adaptational lag. This study documenting the response of high-latitude ecotypes to climate gradients may be an indication of the possible future effects of climate shift in more southern latitudes. © 2014, The Society of Population Ecology and Springer Japan.

Sambu D.K.,Glenville State College | Tarhule A.,University of Oklahoma
African Geographical Review | Year: 2013

Over the past decade, the Kenyan Government has undertaken several water sector reforms in an attempt to increase water access. The most recent of these reforms (2002) was the privatization of water through the creation of autonomous Water Service Providers (WSPs). Among other things, that reform was sold as necessary to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with respect to water and sanitation. This paper uses Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate the progress of the WSPs towards achieving the MDGs by 2015. Based on data availability and reliability, 44 WSP were selected and analysed on various efficiency measures, including technical efficiency and scale efficiency. The findings reveal that all WSPs are operating at significantly below capacity and unlikely to meet the MDGs. Over 50% of small WSPs have achieved less than 30% of targets considered necessary for achieving the MDGs. We propose the use of peer benchmarks as a way of mitigating poor performance. © 2013 The African Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers.

McGraw J.B.,West Virginia University | Turner J.B.,West Virginia University | Chandler J.L.,West Virginia University | Vavrek M.C.,Glenville State College
Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research | Year: 2014

Ecotypic specialization among populations within plant species can result in adaptational lag when the climate changes directionally. However, disturbances, whether caused by direct effects of human activities or indirect effects such as climate change, may represent zones within which natural selection is relaxed. We compared the genetically based variation in leaf morphology in Dryas octopetala within three natural populations arrayed along a snowbank gradient, to that found in a recently colonized gravel pad less than 100 m away (1600 total leaf lengths measured; 4 sites x 10 transects/site x 4 plants/transect x 10 leaves/plant). Elevated among-clone leaf length variation within the disturbed site supported the idea that disturbances may represent "hotspots" of evolutionarily significant genetic variation. In the Arctic, where colonization of disturbances is primarily by native species, adaptive evolution may be more rapid than previously thought due to relaxation of selection and subsequent mixing of previously isolated gene pools in such areas. © 2014 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Conover R.R.,Glenville State College | Dinsmore S.J.,Iowa State University | Burger Jr. L.W.,Mississippi State University
American Midland Naturalist | Year: 2014

Creating and restoring patches of noncrop early-succession vegetation within agricultural landscapes may mitigate grassland bird population declines caused by agricultural land use and intensification. Achieving this goal requires an ability to balance avian benefits with agronomics, which may be facilitated by understanding how bird communities respond to various conservation practices. We evaluated bird richness, abundance, Shannon diversity, and Total Avian Conservation Value in 20 replicates of four Conservation Reserve Program practices in an intensive rowcrop agricultural landscape in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley from May-Jul., 2005-2007. Conservation practices included: (1) large blocks of structurally-diverse early-succession vegetation (6-8 y old trees) and three buffer types; (2) 30 m wide monotypic filter strips with tall dense switchgrass (Panicum virgatum); (3) 30 m wide diverse filter strips with a forb-native warm season grass mixture; and (4) 60 m wide early-succession riparian forest buffers (1-3 y old trees). The breeding bird community was dominated by red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus; 43% of total) and dickcissels (Spiza americana; 42% of total) but commonly included eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), and northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We observed ≥1.8 × more dickcissels in large blocks and diverse filter strips than other buffers and greater Shannon diversity in large blocks than any buffers (P < 0.05). Diverse filter strips had ≥1.6 × greater overall bird density (7.2 birds/0.6 ha), on average, than all other practices. Based on these data, we conclude that buffers are attractive to farmland breeding birds and may provide important ecological benefits to supplement a conservation management system founded on large blocks of early-succession vegetation. © 2014, American Midland Naturalist.

Conover R.R.,Glenville State College | Wes Burger Jr. L.,Mississippi State University | Linder E.T.,University of Texas at Brownsville
Wildlife Society Bulletin | Year: 2011

Upland habitat buffers (i.e., strips of noncrop, herbaceous vegetation) that are established adjacent to wooded fencerows offer landowners an economical option to provide wildlife benefits within intensive agricultural landscapes. However, being located near a wooded edge may increase grassland bird vulnerability to edge effects through reduced nest survival. We examined nesting bird communities in field margins adjacent to wooded field edges with no buffer (i.e., control), narrow (approx. 10-m) buffers, and wide (approx. 30-m) buffers in an intensive agricultural system in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, United States. Dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) accounted for 97% of nests. Nest density was >7 times greater in wide buffers than in narrow. We modeled nest survival in Program MARK as a function of time (yr and season), nest-site, and local vegetation characteristics. Nest survival was influenced by among-and within-season temporal effects and local vegetation structure, but not by buffer width. Nest success varied substantially between years and within seasons for dickcissel (12.9% and 19.1% early in the seasons of 2003 and 2004, respectively), but not for red-winged blackbird (15.1%). Overall nest-success estimates were similar to noncrop, herbaceous strips elsewhere in the United States, though whether or not these estimates represent population sinks remains uncertain. Based on this research, we advocate integrating upland habitat buffers within intensive agricultural landscapes and emphasize the use of wide buffers when grassland-nesting birds are a conservation priority. © 2011 The Wildlife Society.

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