Murabit A.,Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital CAN |
Gnarra M.,Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital CAN |
O'grady K.,Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital CAN |
Morhart M.,Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital CAN |
And 2 more authors.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2013
BACKGROUND: Children with obstetrical brachial plexus injury often develop an internal rotation and adduction contracture about the shoulder as a secondary deformity, resulting in an inability to externally rotate and abduct the shoulder. The Hoffer procedure is evaluated for its potential benefit in improving shoulder abduction and external rotation and its impact on activities of daily living. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients treated in brachial plexus injury clinic who underwent tendon transfer procedures about the shoulder. Preoperative and postoperative active movement and active range of motion were measured and recorded using the Mallet scale and the Active Movement Scale. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included in the study. Average age at time of surgery was 6.35 years. Thirteen patients had primary brachial plexus reconstructive surgery and four patients had concomitant wrist extension tendon transfer procedures. All patients had full passive range of motion preoperatively. The average follow-up period was 25.45 months. Average differences in pre-Hoffer and post-Hoffer Mallet scale scores are as follows: active abduction, 1.20; external rotation, 1.35; hand-to-neck, 1.25; hand-to-back, 0.75; hand-to-mouth, 0.65; and aggregate score, 5.20 (p < 0.001 for all). Average differences in relevant pre-Hoffer and post-Hoffer Active Movement Scale scores are as follows: shoulder abduction, 2.10; shoulder external rotation, 4.25; and shoulder internal rotation, -0.80. All patients maintained full range of motion passively; thus, no functional loss was experienced. These results showed very high statistical significance (p < 0.001 for all) and clinical significance. Younger patients (≤6 years) and those with better preoperative shoulder flexion and shoulder internal rotation yielded better postoperative results. CONCLUSIONS: The Hoffer procedure provides clinically and statistically significant improvement in external rotation and abduction while preserving functional internal rotation range in the child with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy and secondary shoulder deformity. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.