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Tiddington, United Kingdom

Radley J.D.,University of Birmingham | Akers P.,Binley Road | Ellis B.,Claverdon Road | Fenwick I.,Swift Close | Friend C.R.L.,Glendale
Proceedings of the Geologists' Association | Year: 2013

Wood Farm Pit, Bubbenhall, Warwickshire, central England, was one of a complex of sand and gravel quarries within unconsolidated Middle Pleistocene fluvial and glaciogenic sediments of the Baginton and Wolston formations. These strata document the development of the pre-Anglian Bytham River and its eventual destruction during the Anglian glaciation. They have yielded a freshwater and terrestrial fossil biota and Lower Palaeolithic handaxes, and demonstrate well-preserved sedimentary structures. These features underline the value of the local Middle Pleistocene sites as scientific and educational resources. The Warwickshire Geological Conservation Group introduced an experimental soft-sediment conservation scheme at Wood Farm Pit during 2005-2007. This involved designing, installing and monitoring a screen to protect a representative geological exposure. The structure proved highly effective in terms of low cost, ease of installation, protection of the face and allowing rapid re-exposure. The experiment was halted by flooding within the quarry, following high rainfall. © 2012 The Geologists' Association. Source


Nutman A.P.,University of Wollongong | Bennett V.C.,Australian National University | Friend C.R.L.,Glendale | Hidaka H.,Hiroshima University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Science | Year: 2014

From the 3000 km2 Eoarchean Itsaq Gneiss Complex (IGC) of Greenland, zircon U-Pb dating of numerous meta-granitoid and orthogneiss samples is integrated with geologic observations, whole rock geochemistry and a strategic subset of zircon Hf and whole rock Nd isotopic measurements. This shows that there are multiple episodes of TTG suite formation from ∼3890 to 3660 Ma, characterized by zircon initial εHf≈0 and whole rock initial εNd of > +2. These rocks mostly have geochemical signatures of partial melting of eclogitized mafic sources, with a subset of high magnesian, low silica rocks indicating fusion by fluid fluxing of upper mantle sources. The TTG suites are accompanied by slightly older gabbros, basalts and andesites, which have geochemical signatures pointing to magmas originating from fluid fluxing of upper mantle sources. The data show the formation of juvenile crust domains in several discrete events from ∼3900 to 3660 Ma, probably at convergent plate boundaries in an environment analogous, but not identical to, modern island arcs. In the Isua area, a northern ∼3700 Ma terrane formed distal from a predominantly ∼3800 Ma terrane. These terranes were juxtaposed between 3680 and 3660 Ma - respectively the age of the youngest rocks unique to the northern terrane and the lithologically distinctive ultramafic-granitic Inaluk dykes common to both terranes. This shows the assembly of different domains of juvenile rocks to form a more expansive domain of "continental" crust. A rare occurrence of high-pressure granulite is dated at ∼3660 Ma, demonstrating that assembly involved tectonic crustal thickening. This continental crust was then reworked in the 3660 to 3600 Ma Isukasian orogeny. In the northern part of the Isua area, 3660 to 3600 Ma granites were emplaced into ∼3700 Ma tonalites. The earliest granites are nebulous, and sigmoidal schlieric inclusions within them demonstrate ductile extension. Younger granite sheets were emplaced into extensional ductile-brittle fractures. These granite-tonalite relationships are overprinted by widespread development of late Eoarchean (pre-3500 Ma Ameralik dyke) brittle-ductile extensional cataclastic textures, together demonstrating that extension was polybaric. The southern part of the Isua area largely escaped 3660 to 3600 Ma high temperature processes and has sparse granite sheets commonly focused into coeval shear zones. In the rest of the complex, deeper crustal levels during the Isukasian orogeny are widely preserved. These experienced upper amphibolite to granulite facies moderate-to low-pressure syn-kinematic metamorphism, forming complex migmatites rich in granitic-trondhjemitic neosome. The migmatites were intruded by composite ferrogabbro and granite bodies, in which syn-magmatic extensional features are locally preserved. Thus 3660 to 3600 Ma crustal recycling involved elevated crustal thermal gradients in an extensional regime. Crustal melts formed in the Isukasian orogeny have zircon initial εHf<0 and whole rock initial εNd of ≤0, showing incorporation of slightly older Eoarchean juvenile crust. A Phanerozoic example of collisional orogeny followed by crustal thinning is explored as an analog for the Isukasian orogeny. Source


Nutman A.P.,University of Wollongong | Bennett V.C.,Australian National University | Friend C.R.L.,Glendale
American Journal of Science | Year: 2015

A synthesis of the geological record of Earth's ten remaining oldest surviving gneiss complexes, each containing >3.6 Ga rocks, reveals a common history. We propose that the simplest scenario compatible with all observations is that of formation of an ancient continental mass, here named Itsaqia, by 3.66 Ga from amalgamation of earlier quartzofeldspathic crust, followed by initiation of continental break-up at 3.53 Ga by rifting. Evidence for this is reconstructed from the remaining oldest rock record (only ca. 10,000 km2 globally). Dominating the surviving fragments of the proposed Itsaqia continent are 3.9 to 3.66 Ga tonalites that represent juvenile crustal additions with whole-rock initial εNd >+1 and zircon initial εHf ≈ 0. Their trace element chemistry shows that they were derived by ca. 30 percent partial melting of garnetiferous, mostly eclogitized basic rocks, leaving behind a subcrustal garnet-rich restite. The tonalites contain inclusions of mafic rocks with chemical signatures diagnostic of mantle wedge fluxing, such as enrichment in the light rare earths and depletion of Nb and Ti. We interpret that this juvenile crust formed repeatedly in arc-like constructs at convergent plate boundaries. The Acasta Gneiss of Canada is the only undisputed surviving rock record of the proposed Itsaqia continent where crust formation extends back to the Hadean. Before ca. 3.66 Ga, individual gneiss complexes show distinct chronologies of crust formation, yet despite their present-day isolation, they underwent identical 3.66 to 3.6 Ga high temperature orogenic events (Isukasian orogeny) - which we contend indicates that from 3.66 Ga these complexes had amalgamated into a single continental mass. Rare surviving 3.66 Ga high-pressure granulite rocks that underwent rapid decompression indicate tectonic crustal thickening then collapse during amalgamation. This was followed by almost 50 million years of high heat flow and lower pressure metamorphism, most probably in an extensional setting. Starting from ca. 3.53 Ga, we propose that komatiite and basalt eruption and dike emplacement marked the start of Itsaqia's dismemberment by rifting. We further speculate that the deep mantle upwelling responsible for this plume-related magmatism was triggered by either the cascade of pre-3.66 Ga sub-Itsaqia high density garnet-rich restitic subduction graveyards into the lower mantle or the thermal insulation effect of Itsaqia. This resembles the mechanisms of supercontinent breakup throughout Earth's history. Hence we propose that Wilson Cycles of continent amalgamation and breakup were already initiated by the Eoarchean, near the start of the rock record. Australia's East Pilbara region was over the top of the plume, where the thermal impact destroyed Itsaqia by melting to give rise to felsic igneous rocks coeval with komatiites. Greenland's Itsaq Gneiss Complex was peripheral to the plume, and hence was heavily diked at ca. 3.5 Ga, but was not melted. Source


Nutman A.P.,University of Wollongong | Nutman A.P.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Bennett V.C.,Australian National University | Chivas A.R.,University of Wollongong | And 3 more authors.
Precambrian Research | Year: 2015

This paper reports evidence for Earth's oldest-recognised low temperature alteration, at ~3800. Ma. Potassic felsic schists with a protolith age of 3806 ± 2. Ma form a ~30. km long unit in the amphibolite facies, deformed, Isua supracrustal belt (West Greenland). At a single locality, boudinaged layers (nodules) within the schists are low strain zones: they are fine-grained, weakly feldspar-phyric, contain quartz amygdules and have fiamme-like structures, all supporting a volcanic protolith.The nodules and surrounding schistose matrix contain abundant, 100-50μm, euhedral, oscillatory zoned 3806Ma zircons. The rare earth patterns of the zircons indicate crystallisation was magmatic. Some zircons contain axial lobate voids indicating that they grew at low pressure as the magma exsolved a fluid. Ti-in-zircon thermometry indicates crystallisation temperatures of 750-650°C. Taken together, these zircon features indicates growth at eutectic temperatures in a hypabyssal chamber as the magma was exsolving a fluid phase. The magmatic zircons have e{open}Hf initial values of ~0 and δ18OVSMOW of +5.0‰ (Hiess et al., 2009), showing that the source of the volcanic rocks was devoid of assimilated markedly older or weathered crustal material, and probably essentially juvenile. In contrast, the whole rock δ18OVSMOW values are elevated at +14.7 to +16.2‰, indicative of superimposed low-temperature alteration processes.The nodules and matrix schists have non-igneous bulk compositions, exemplified by strong enrichment in K2O and depletion in Na2O. They are depleted in Sr, have no negative Eu anomalies, but have high Rb/Sr, with an Rb-Sr age of 3760±140Ma (Jacobsen and Dymek, 1988). This indicates that the alteration involving strong degradation of plagioclase occurred in the Eoarchaean. Trace element compositions and establishment of alteration vectors suggest the protoliths were likely rhyolitic and dacitic in composition.The strongest-modified matrix schist compositions contain biotite±calcite±dolomite with increase in MgO relative to the nodules, which indicates early magnesian carbonate growth. The whole-rock chemistry, decoupling of the igneous zircon and whole-rock oxygen isotope signatures and the Rb-Sr dating indicate that after eruption, the 3806Ma felsic volcanic rocks underwent Eoarchaean low-temperature potassic alteration with weathering and groundwater circulation the most likely process. The geochemistry of the Isua felsic schists is compared with that of better-preserved volcanic rocks where the alteration conditions are known. This suggests a subaerial environment. The carbonatisation of the Isua felsic schists demonstrates drawdown of atmospheric CO2 into rocks made porous by the weathering. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Jenner F.E.,Carnegie Institution of Washington | Jenner F.E.,Australian National University | Bennett V.C.,Australian National University | Yaxley G.,Australian National University | And 2 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2013

The majority of >3 Ga metabasalts have chemical features, such as high field strength element (HFSE) depletions, that are characteristic of modern island-arc basalts. These compositions have been interpreted as evidence for subduction of oceanic crust early in Earth's history. Alternatively, the apparent absence of Archean mafic rocks with mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB) and ocean island basalt (OIB) compositions and the ubiquitous occurrence of metabasalts with HFSE anomalies suggest that these chemical features may instead be a widespread characteristic of the Archean mantle related to early chemical differentiation and unrelated to modern-style recycling of crust. Here we present major- and trace-element data for a suite of metabasalts from Innersuartuut Island, southwest Greenland, which have a minimum age constraint of 3.75 Ga and are likely as old as ≥3.85 Ga. Samples from Innersuartuut show no evidence for crustal contamination or subduction-related magmatism, and have a petrogenesis comparable to modern OIB. The new data demonstrate that a compositional range for volcanic rocks comparable to that seen in the Phanerozoic existed in the Eoarchean. Therefore, rather than a global anomaly, subduction-related processes are the likely origin for the compositions of the most commonly preserved Archean mafic rocks with island-arc basalt characteristics. © 2013 Geological Society of America. Source

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