Weimar, Germany
Weimar, Germany

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Boerefijn R.,PURAC Biochem b.v. | Orlovic M.,PURAC Biochem b.v. | Reimers C.,SolidSim Engineering GmbH | Pogodda M.,SolidSim Engineering GmbH | Jacob M.,Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2013

The present work describes the study of a continuous fluidized bed granulation process involving a solution spray as binder. The study entails the employment of a flux number as an extension to an existing flowsheet model (SolidSim). The agglomeration kernel used here is based on the Equi-Kinetic Energy principle and has been derived and proven for fluidized bed granulation processes using reactive and melt binders, but not for solution binders. This kernel has been correlated in the past to the flux number, which contains the main characteristics of the fluidized solids and the spray-on, such as the binder flux, the particle density and the fluidization gas velocity, in combination with population balances. This correlation was derived for a few liquid/solids systems only, notably small scale batch processes with melt binders, and a first attempt to the generalization of this correlation is shown here by its application to a completely different system, notably a continuous large pilot using a solution binder. The validated SolidSim flowsheet is useful for parameter variations and sensitivity analyses, showing a strong effect of the flux number exponent and the cut size of the screen on the product size distribution and recycle rate. Such quantitative relations between process conditions and product quality allow for significant savings in cost and time for process and product development and optimization. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Stresing A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Morl L.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Khaidurova A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Jacob M.,Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH | Walther K.,EMA TEC GmbH
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2013

A new contactless method for supplying energy to a fluidized bed is presented. An electromagnetic field supplies power to electro conductive inert particles. This technique is characterized by high energy densities and fast heating rates as well as high efficiency. It is essential in the metal processing industry. The experimental results show that the advantages of inductive heating can also be used for fluidized bed applications. The key aspect here is the determination of the time response and its parameters. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Sondej F.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Buck A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Koslowsky K.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Bachmann P.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | And 2 more authors.
Powder Technology | Year: 2015

Spray fluidized bed coating is a common process in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Morphology of the formed layer is essential for product quality. Therefore, layer morphology was investigated in detail by X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT) for porous γ-alumina particles coated with a solution of sodium benzoate with some hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose in water. Investigated properties are: layer thickness distribution on individual particles, porosity of the layer, and average layer thickness. The determination of layer thickness was performed in two different ways: (1) using two-dimensional cross-sections of volume images obtained from full μ-CT measurements, and (2) using single X-ray irradiation images without sample rotation. The porosity of the coating layer was evaluated from the volume images. Further studies were performed to investigate the influence of operating parameter, e.g. exposure time, on image quality and the obtained results. Special attention was put on ways to reduce the necessary measurement time while preserving the quality of the results. Finally, a new measurement protocol is presented which allows to measure coating thickness distributions in a particle population. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Zarekar S.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Buck A.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg | Jacob M.,Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH | Tsotsas E.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Powder Technology | Year: 2016

Fluidized beds operated at sub-atmospheric pressure can be employed for granulation and drying of thermo-sensitive materials in the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, the hydrodynamics of vacuum fluidized beds has not been extensively investigated. Some authors argue that at low pressures, the slip flow of gas is the major factor influencing the hydrodynamic behavior. The influence of change in gas properties on the hydrodynamics due to reduction in pressure has not been clearly distinguished. In this contribution, the individual effects of gas properties and slip flow on the hydrodynamic behavior, particularly on the minimum fluidization velocity, of vacuum fluidized beds are quantified. This has been achieved by expanding the classical minimum fluidization velocity correlation, valid under atmospheric pressure, to include the slip flow term. The results obtained describe a critical Knudsen number which indicates when the slip term begins to significantly influence the flow behavior. The derived correlation is compared with correlations reported in literature as well as validated with experimental data. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Neuwirth J.,TU Hamburg - Harburg | Antonyuk S.,TU Hamburg - Harburg | Heinrich S.,TU Hamburg - Harburg | Jacob M.,Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH
Chemical Engineering Science | Year: 2013

In this work, the fluid and particle dynamics in a rotor granulator system (fluid bed rotor processor) are investigated. The mathematical model is based on a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach for the gas phase coupled with a Discrete Element Method (DEM). The physical properties and collision behaviour of test particles are investigated experimentally and incorporated in a viscoelastic particle contact model. The influence of several process parameters, e.g. air gap velocity and rotor speed, on the particle motion and collision behaviour is investigated. In order to check applicability and limitations of the simulation model, a novel non-intrusive Magnetic Particle Tracking (MPT) technique was used for the continuous measurement of the particle position and orientation of a single tracer particle. Thus particle trajectories as well as translational and angular velocities are obtained. The simulation model shows a good agreement with the experimental results. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Mueller S.B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kueppers U.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Ayris P.M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Jacob M.,Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH | Dingwell D.B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2016

Explosive volcanic eruptions can release vast quantities of pyroclastic material into Earth's atmosphere, including volcanic ash, particles with diameters less than two millimeters. Ash particles can cluster together to form aggregates, in some cases reaching up to several centimeters in size. Aggregation alters ash transport and settling behavior compared to un-aggregated particles, influencing ash distribution and deposit stratigraphy. Accretionary lapilli, the most commonly preserved type of aggregates within the geologic record, can exhibit complex internal stratigraphy. The processes involved in the formation and preservation of these aggregates remain poorly constrained quantitatively. In this study, we simulate the variable gas-particle flow conditions which may be encountered within eruption plumes and pyroclastic density currents via laboratory experiments using the ProCell Lab System® of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH. In this apparatus, solid particles are set into motion in a fluidized bed over a range of well-controlled boundary conditions (particle concentration, air flow rate, gas temperature, humidity, liquid composition). Experiments were conducted with soda-lime glass beads and natural volcanic ash particles under a range of experimental conditions. Both glass beads and volcanic ash exhibited the capacity for aggregation, but stable aggregates could only be produced when materials were coated with high but volcanically-relevant concentrations of NaCl. The growth and structure of aggregates was dependent on the initial granulometry, while the rate of aggregate formation increased exponentially with increasing relative humidity (12-45% RH), before overwetting promoted mud droplet formation. Notably, by use of a broad granulometry, we generated spherical, internally structured aggregates similar to some accretionary pellets found in volcanic deposits. Adaptation of a powder-technology model offers an explanation for the origin of natural accretionary pellets, suggesting them to be the result of a particular granulometry and fast-acting selective aggregation processes. For such aggregates to survive deposition and be preserved in the deposits of eruption plumes and pyroclastic density currents likely requires a significant pre-existing salt load on ash surfaces, and rapid aggregate drying prior to deposition or interaction with a more energetic environment. Our results carry clear benefits for future efforts to parameterize models of ash transport and deposition in the field. © 2015 The Authors.

Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH | Date: 2014-04-03

The invention starts out from a fluidizing apparatus (1) for conditioning solid particles, consisting of a distribution chamber (2), a turbulence chamber (3), wherein the turbulence chamber (3) has separating walls (10) or the like for conveying solid particles along a conveyor path, a solid particle inlet unit (6) as well as a solid particle outlet unit (7) and a flow receiving base (11), wherein an air distribution plate (18) is arranged below the flow receiving base (11), and opening ratios, which result through openings (22) in the air distribution plate (18), vary.

Glatt Ingenieurtechnik Gmbh | Date: 2011-09-05

The invention relates to a method and to an accompanying facility (1) for drying plant material (19), such as, for example, fruits, spices, plants, herbs and the like, by means of a stream of drying gas which is supplied to a drying installation. The method according to the invention is distinguished by the fact that the material to be dried is distributed to a plurality of trays (15-17) of the drying installation (1), which trays are arranged one above the other and through which gas can flow, where each tray is supplied with a portion (10, 11) of refreshed and conditioned drying gas so that an almost uniform drying rate of the material to be dried is obtained on the individual trays. The facility according to the invention is composed of a plurality of trays (13, 17) arranged one above the other in the process space (3) of the drying installation (1) so that a first portion (10) of the drying gas can flow through them, they are divided in each case into a plurality of segments (12) and they have assigned to them, underneath the segments (12) of the respective individual trays (16, 17), in each case a marginal channel (14), a central channel (13) and a transverse channel (18), for supplying a second portion (11) of a drying gas.

Glatt Ingenieurtechnik Gmbh | Date: 2014-04-03

The invention is based on a star-shaped rotation dryer (1) for segmenting a fluidizing chamber 4) into process compartments (11), whereby the star-shaped rotation dryer (1) is pivot mounted and features dividing wall (9) or similar for the conveyance of solid particles along a conveyance path, whereby a flow-receiving base (10) is detachably mounted below the star-shaped rotation dryer (1); the invention further relates to a method of spray-coating solid particles for the purpose of agglomeration, coating, layering, spray granulation or pelletization, whereby the retention time spectrum of the solid particles inside the fluid-bed apparatus (2) has a margin of at least 1:3 (alternatively tRTD90S 3 tRTD10).

Glatt Ingenieurtechnik Gmbh | Date: 2012-05-11

The invention relates to a device for continuously treating solids in a fluidized bed apparatus, comprising a round process chamber with a solids inlet and a solids outlet, and a distributor plate which is adapted to the inner contour of the process chamber and beneath which a media inlet is arranged to produce and maintain the fluidized bed. According to the invention, on the distributor plate (1) there is a separating wall (2) that protrudes radially inwards from the process chamber (3, 9) inner wall (10) and into the process chamber (3, 9). The solids inlet (5) is located on one side close to the separating wall (2), and the solids outlet (6) is on the other side close to the separating wall (2). It is particularly advantageous to arrange, on the distributor plate (1) and along the axis of the process chamber (9), a displacer element (8) that is connected to the separating wall (2). This has the advantage that, in a process chamber that has a round cross-section while the fluidized bed is also flat, an evenly directed flow of solids in the horizontal direction is obtained over a longer distance. Such a device allows a narrow spectrum of residence time.

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