Zhang T.,Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical science |
Watson D.G.,Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical science |
Wang L.,Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical science |
Abbas M.,Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical science |
And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Human exhibit wide variations in their metabolic profiles because of differences in genetic factors, diet and lifestyle. Therefore in order to detect metabolic differences between individuals robust analytical methods are required. A protocol was produced based on the use of Liquid Chromatography- High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in combination with orthogonal Hydrophilic Interaction (HILIC) and Reversed Phase (RP) liquid chromatography methods for the analysis of the urinary metabolome, which was then evaluated as a diagnostic tool for prostate cancer (a common but highly heterogeneous condition). The LC-HRMS method was found to be robust and exhibited excellent repeatability for retention times (<±1%), and mass accuracy (<±1 ppm). Based on normalised data (against creatinine levels, osmolality or MS total useful signals/MSTUS) coupled with supervised multivariate analysis using Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we were able to discriminate urine samples from men with or without prostate cancer with R2Y(cum) >0.9. In addition, using the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) test, the area under curve (AUC) for the combination of the four best characterised biomarker compounds was 0.896. The four biomarker compounds were also found to differ significantly (P<0.05) between an independent patient cohort and controls. This is the first time such a rigorous test has been applied to this type of model. If validated, the established protocol provides a robust approach with a potentially wide application to metabolite profiling of human biofluids in health and disease. © 2013 Zhang et al.
Shiels P.G.,University of Glasgow |
McGlynn L.M.,University of Glasgow |
MacIntyre A.,University of Glasgow |
Johnson P.C.D.,University of Glasgow |
And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Background: It has previously been hypothesized that lower socio-economic status can accelerate biological ageing, and predispose to early onset of disease. This study investigated the association of socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as traditional and novel risk factors, with biological-ageing, as measured by telomere length, in a Glasgow based cohort that included individuals with extreme socio-economic differences. Methods: A total of 382 blood samples from the pSoBid study were available for telomere analysis. For each participant, data was available for socio-economic status factors, biochemical parameters and dietary intake. Statistical analyses were undertaken to investigate the association between telomere lengths and these aforementioned parameters. Results: The rate of age-related telomere attrition was significantly associated with low relative income, housing tenure and poor diet. Notably, telomere length was positively associated with LDL and total cholesterol levels, but inversely correlated to circulating IL-6. Conclusions: These data suggest lower socio-economic status and poor diet are relevant to accelerated biological ageing. They also suggest potential associations between elevated circulating IL-6, a measure known to predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes with biological ageing. These observations require further study to tease out potential mechanistic links. © 2011 Shiels et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
PubMed | University of California at San Francisco, University of Houston, University of Oslo, Glasgow Clinical Research Facility and 16 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European heart journal | Year: 2015
The effect of statins on risk of heart failure (HF) hospitalization and HF death remains uncertain. We aimed to establish whether statins reduce major HF events.We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled endpoint statin trials from 1994 to 2014. Collaborating trialists provided unpublished data from adverse event reports. We included primary- and secondary-prevention statin trials with >1000 participants followed for >1 year. Outcomes consisted of first non-fatal HF hospitalization, HF death and a composite of first non-fatal HF hospitalization or HF death. HF events occurring <30 days after within-trial myocardial infarction (MI) were excluded. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with fixed-effects meta-analyses. In up to 17 trials with 132 538 participants conducted over 4.3 [weighted standard deviation (SD) 1.4] years, statin therapy reduced LDL-cholesterol by 0.97 mmol/L (weighted SD 0.38 mmol/L). Statins reduced the numbers of patients experiencing non-fatal HF hospitalization (1344/66 238 vs. 1498/66 330; RR 0.90, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.84-0.97) and the composite HF outcome (1234/57 734 vs. 1344/57 836; RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-0.99) but not HF death (213/57 734 vs. 220/57 836; RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17). The effect of statins on first non-fatal HF hospitalization was similar whether this was preceded by MI (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.68-1.11) or not (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.98).In primary- and secondary-prevention trials, statins modestly reduced the risks of non-fatal HF hospitalization and a composite of non-fatal HF hospitalization and HF death with no demonstrable difference in risk reduction between those who suffered an MI or not.
Tolmie E.P.,Glasgow Clinical Research Facility |
Dinnett E.M.,Robertson Center for Biostatistics |
Ronald E.S.,Royal Infirmary |
Gaw A.,Glasgow Clinical Research Facility
Trials | Year: 2011
Background: The UK Clinical Trial Regulations and Good Clinical Practice guidelines specify that the study sponsor must ensure clinical trial data are accurately reported, recorded and verified to ensure patient safety and scientific integrity. The methods that are utilised to assess data quality and the results of any reviews undertaken are rarely reported in the literature. We have recently undertaken a quality review of trial data submitted to a Clinical Endpoint Committee for adjudication. The purpose of the review was to identify areas that could be improved for future clinical trials. The results are reported in this paper.Methods: Throughout the course of the study, all data queries were logged. Following study close out, queries were coded and categorised. A descriptive and comparative analysis was conducted to determine the frequency of occurrence for each category by country of origin.Results: From 1595 endpoint packages reviewed, 782 queries were generated. No source data queries were generated for countries with ≤ 25 recruited subjects, but both low recruiting and high recruiting countries had a high number of queries relating to subject identifiers.Conclusions: The implementation of some simple measures could help improve data quality and lead to significant savings. © 2011 Tolmie et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Krishnadas R.,University of Glasgow |
Kim J.,University of Glasgow |
McLean J.,University of Glasgow |
David Batty G.,Medical Research Council Social and Public Health science Unit |
And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Complex cognitive functions are widely recognized to be the result of a number of brain regions working together as large-scale networks. Recently, complex network analysis has been used to characterize various structural properties of the large-scale network organization of the brain. For example, the human brain has been found to have a modular architecture i.e., regions within the network form communities (modules) with more connections between regions within the community compared to regions outside it. The aim of this study was to examine the modular and overlapping modular architecture of the brain networks using complex network analysis. We also examined the association between neighborhood level deprivation and brain network structure-modularity and gray nodes. We compared network structure derived from anatomical MRI scans of 42 middle-aged neurologically healthy men from the least (LD) and the most deprived (MD) neighborhoods of Glasgow with their corresponding random networks. Cortical morphological covariance networks were constructed from the cortical thickness derived from the MRI scans of the brain. For a given modularity threshold, networks derived from the MD group showed similar number of modules compared to their corresponding random networks, while networks derived from the LD group had more modules compared to their corresponding random networks. The MD group also had fewer gray nodes-a measure of overlapping modular structure. These results suggest that apparent structural difference in brain networks may be driven by differences in cortical thicknesses between groups. This demonstrates a structural organization that is consistent with a system that is less robust and less efficient in information processing. These findings provide some evidence of the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and brain network topology. © 2013 Krishnadas, Kim, McLean, Batty, McLean, Millar, Packard and Cavanagh.
Preiss D.,University of Glasgow |
Lloyd S.M.,University of Glasgow |
Ford I.,University of Glasgow |
McMurray J.J.,University of Glasgow |
And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology | Year: 2014
Background: Metformin reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes seemingly independent of lowering blood glucose concentration. We assessed the cardiovascular effects of metformin in individuals without type 2 diabetes. Methods: We did a single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at the Glasgow Clinical Research Facility (Glasgow, UK). We enrolled patients taking statins who did not have type 2 diabetes but who did have coronary heart disease and large waist circumferences. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by computer to either metformin (850 mg twice daily) or matching placebo in block sizes of four. Patients, investigators, trial staff, and statisticians were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was progression of mean distal carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) over 18 months in the modified intention-to-treat population. Secondary endpoints were changes in carotid plaque score (in six regions), measures of glycaemia (HbA1c, fasting glucose, and insulin concentrations, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR]), and concentrations of lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and tissue plasminogen activator. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00723307. Findings: We screened 356 patients, of whom we enrolled 173 (86 in the metformin group, 87 in the placebo group). Average age was 63 years. At baseline, mean cIMT was 0·717 mm (SD 0·129) and mean carotid plaque score was 2·43 (SD 1·55). cIMT progression did not differ significantly between groups (slope difference 0·007 mm per year, 95% CI -0·006 to 0·020; p=0·29). Change of carotid plaque score did not differ significantly between groups (0·01 per year, 95% CI -0·23 to 0·26; p=0·92). Patients taking metformin had lower HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and tissue plasminogen activator compared with those taking placebo, but there were no significant differences for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, or fasting glucose. 138 adverse events occurred in 64 patients in the metformin group versus 120 in 60 patients in the placebo group. Diarrhoea and nausea or vomiting were more common in the metformin group than in the placebo group (28 vs 5). Interpretation: Metformin had no effect on cIMT and little or no effect on several surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk, taking statins. Further evidence is needed before metformin can be recommended for cardiovascular benefit in this population. Funding: Chief Scientist Office (Scotland). © 2014 Preiss et al.
Mcguinness D.,University of Glasgow |
Mcglynn L.M.,University of Glasgow |
Johnson P.C.D.,University of Glasgow |
Macintyre A.,University of Glasgow |
And 16 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012
Background: Epigenetic programming and epigenetic mechanisms driven by environmental factors are thought to play an important role in human health and ageing. Global DNA methylation has been postulated as an epigenetic marker for epidemiological studies as it is reflective of changes in gene expression linked to disease. How epigenetic mechanisms are affected by psychological, sociological and biological determinants of health still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between socio-economic and lifestyle factors and epigenetic status, as measured by global DNA methylation content, in the pSoBid cohort, which is characterized by an extreme socio-economic and health gradient. Methods: DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using the Maxwell® 16 System and Maxwell® 16 Blood DNA Purification kit (Promega, UK). Global DNA methylation was assessed using Methylamp™ Global DNA Methylation Quantification Ultra kit (Epigentek, USA). Associations between global DNA methylation and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were investigated in linear regression models.Results Global DNA hypomethylation was observed in the most socio-economically deprived subjects. Job status demonstrated a similar relationship, with manual workers having 24% lower DNA methylation content than non-manual. Additionally, associations were found between global DNA methylation content and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and inflammation, including fibrinogen and interleukin-6 (IL-6), after adjustment for socio-economic factors.Conclusions This study has indicated an association between epigenetic status and socio-economic status (SES). This relationship has direct implications for population health and is reflected in further associations between global DNA methylation content and emerging biomarkers of CVD. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2012; all rights reserved.
Preiss D.,University of Glasgow |
Packard C.J.,Glasgow Clinical Research Facility
Current Cardiology Reports | Year: 2014
Statins are safe, efficacious and the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease prevention strategies. A number of add-on therapies with complementary actions on the plasma lipid profile have been tested in large scale trials to see if they give incremental benefit. In particular, the 'HDL hypothesis' - that raising this lipoprotein will promote reverse cholesterol transport and reduce cardiovascular risk - has been examined using drugs such as dalcetrapib and niacin. So far, results have been negative, and this has raised questions over the nature of the association of HDL with atherosclerosis, and whether statins reduce cardiovascular risk through multiple mechanisms. There is still an unmet clinical need especially in those patients who cannot tolerate statins and those with severe hyperlipidemia, and so new therapeutic approaches have been developed. These show significant promise in terms of LDL-cholesterol lowering but significant challenges include cost, route of administration (subcutaneous injection) and side effects. Testing in major outcome trials will be required to demonstrate their clinical utility. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.
Caslake M.J.,University of Glasgow |
Packard C.J.,University of Glasgow |
Robertson M.,University of Glasgow |
Cooney J.,University of Glasgow |
And 7 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2010
Objective: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an inflammatory biomarker that circulates mainly bound to LDL. We evaluated the association of Lp-PLA2 with vascular events in the elderly where the importance of LDL is diminished as a risk factor for coronary disease. Methods: Mass and activity of Lp-PLA2 were related to risk over 3.2 years for vascular events (definite or suspected death from CHD, non-fatal MI, fatal or non-fatal stroke) in the 2804 men and 3000 women age 70-82 years in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly (PROSPER). Results: Lp-PLA2 showed a moderate, positive association with risk of a vascular event with hazard ratios of 1.25 (confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.54) for mass and 1.39 (CI 1.14-1.70) for activity for top versus bottom quartile. Risk associations were attenuated when classical risk factors, lipids and inflammatory markers - C-reactive protein and white cell count - were included in the models. Lp-PLA2 was unrelated to stroke risk. Inclusion of all three inflammatory markers in multivariate models negated the association of HDL cholesterol with risk (hazard ratio 0.98; CI 0.88-1.10) and increased prediction of coronary events; the C statistic rose from 63.2% to 64.4% (P<0.001). Conclusion: In elderly people Lp-PLA2, alongside other inflammatory indices, is a potential biomarker for vascular events, particularly CHD. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Packard C.J.,Glasgow Clinical Research Facility |
Weintraub W.S.,Christiana Care Health System |
Laufs U.,Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes
Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2015
Short-term absolute cardiovascular event rates in young/middle-aged people are low even if they have risk factors, and parameters such as number-needed-to-treat over 5. years are inadequate to visualize and to communicate the lifelong benefit of interventions such as statin therapy to individuals and to healthcare providers. To understand more fully the impact of risk factors, and lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, there is a need to focus on disease trajectory over a lifetime and to develop new metrics of success. A shift to primordial ('true') prevention of the formation of atherosclerotic lesions will require new tools and approaches in the interaction between physicians and patients as individuals or populations. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..