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Hyderabad, India

Orr S.,Gland Pharma | Pittock J.,Australian National University | Chapagain A.,WWF UK | Dumaresq D.,Australian National University
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2012

Proposed dam construction in the Lower Mekong Basin will considerably reduce fish catch and place heightened demands on the resources necessary to replace lost protein and calories. Additional land and water required to replace lost fish protein with livestock products are modelled using land and water footprint methods. Two main scenarios cover projections of these increased demands and enable the specific impact from the main stem dam proposals to be considered in the context of basin-wide hydropower development. Scenario 1 models 11 main stem dams and estimates a 4-7% increase overall in water use for food production, with much higher estimations for countries entirely within the Basin: Cambodia (29-64%) and Laos (12-24%). Land increases run to a 13-27% increase. In scenario 2, covering another 77 dams planned in the Basin by 2030 and reservoir fisheries, projections are much higher: 6-17% for water, and 19-63% for land. These are first estimates of impacts of dam development on fisheries and will be strongly mediated by cultural and economic factors. The results suggest that basic food security is potentially at a high risk of disruption and therefore basin stakeholders should be fully engaged in strategies to offset these impacts. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Fossette S.,University of Swansea | Fossette S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Witt M.J.,University of Exeter | Nalovic M.A.,Virginia Institute of Marine Science | And 24 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Large oceanic migrants play important roles in ecosystems, yet many species are of conservation concern as a result of anthropogenic threats, of which incidental capture by fisheries is frequently identified. The last large populations of the leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, occur in the Atlantic Ocean, but interactions with industrial fisheries could jeopardize recent positive population trends, making bycatch mitigation a priority. Here, we perform the first pan Atlantic analysis of spatio-temporal distribution of the leatherback turtle and ascertain overlap with longline fishing effort. Data suggest that the Atlantic probably consists of two regional management units: northern and southern (the latter including turtles breeding in South Africa). Although turtles and fisheriesshow highly diverse distributions, we highlight nine areas of high susceptibility to potential bycatch (four in the northern Atlantic and five in the southern/equatorial Atlantic) that are worthy of further targeted investigation and mitigation. These are reinforced by reports of leatherback bycatch at eight of these sites. International collaborative efforts are needed, especially from nations hosting regions where susceptibility to bycatch is likely to be high within their exclusive economic zone (northern Atlantic: Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, Spain, USA and Western Sahara; southern Atlantic: Angola, Brazil, Namibia and UK) and from nations fishing in these high-susceptibility areas, including those located in international waters. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Sandle T.,Bio Products Laboratory Ltd | Saghee M.R.,Gland Pharma
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology | Year: 2011

This article, written from an industry perspective, examines the current trend towards the implementation of single-use disposable technologies in the biopharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors. Single-use technologies are generally sterile, plastic disposable items implemented to replace traditional pharmaceutical processing items that require recycling, cleaning and in-house sterilisation. The forces driving the technological change are a mix of process efficiencies (including cost reduction) and sterility assurance. This article examines the advantages of some single-use systems used for aseptic processing, although in doing so a cautionary approach is adopted, particularly with regard to the validation requirements and practical considerations when such technologies are implemented. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Source

Schroth G.,Federal University of Para | McNeely J.A.,Gland Pharma
Environmental Management | Year: 2011

Trade-offs between ecosystem conservation and agricultural production can more easily be addressed by shifting the view from the plot scale to the scale of the landscape and integrating biodiversity friendly land use systems into development strategies. The provision of ecosystem services such as watershed protection and carbon sequestration by natural and complex agro-ecosystems can play an important role in making such integrated landscape approaches viable. This special issue brings together papers that were presented at a symposium on agroforestry and landscape scale conservation at the Second World Agroforestry Congress in Nairobi in August 2009. It is divided into two sections focusing on: (1) the biological mechanisms and implications of landscape scale conservation strategies as influenced by land use, especially agroforestry; and (2) the economic drivers and public policies that determine to a large extent the success of agroforestry-based landscape conservation strategies. The contributions provide evidence both for the potential and limitations of agroforestry in landscape scale conservation and development strategies and highlight the importance of economic incentives and policies to promote integrated landscape solutions. This introductory paper summarizes and discusses the contributions and concludes with policy recommendations and research needs. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Srikanth R.,Gland Pharma | Sivarajan A.,Gland Pharma | Sivarajan A.,Bharathidasan University | Sivakumar B.,Gland Pharma | Sivakumar B.,Orchid Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Ltd
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

Acetic acid promoted one-pot Mannich type condensation involving long chain ketones results in the formation of 3-substituted or 3,5-disubstituted 2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones in moderate yields. In the absence of acetic acid, the reaction does not proceed to completion. The six member heterocyclic ring adopts a chair conformation, with equatorial disposition of all the substituents. Among the different derivatives of piperidine-4-one, derivatives containing tetrazole and semicarbazone are more potent than the alkyl derivatives against bacteria and fungi. Source

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