Växjö, Sweden
Växjö, Sweden

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Karlsson S.,Linnaeus University | Karlsson S.,Glafo AB | Jonson B.,Linnaeus University | Johansson M.,Linnaeus University | Enquist B.,Linnaeus University
Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A | Year: 2013

The effect of single-side ion exchange (using a KNO3:KCl mixture) on the ring-on-ring flexural strength of float glass has been studied. Two ion exchanged series, treated at 450 and 515°C, were investigated. The ion exchanged samples showed approximately 160 respectively 100% increases in their arithmetic mean strength compared to as-received float glass. Furthermore, a series of samples containing drilled holes were studied in order to investigate the effect of singleside ion exchange on such common construction elements. The samples that contained drilled holes were ion exchanged at 450°C and showed around 140% increase of the fracture load compared to the untreated samples containing drilled holes. As a general observation, the ion exchange treatment induced ∼110 MPa compressive stresses (515°C) and ∼180 MPa compressive stresses (450°C). The ion exchanged samples showed no significant increase in stiffness.


Karlsson S.,Linnaeus University | Jonson B.,Linnaeus University | Stalhandske C.,Glafo AB
Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A | Year: 2010

The methods of chemical strengthening for improving the mechanical properties of oxide glasses are reviewed. Chemical strengthening is compared with thermal strengthening and different methods of measuring strength are discussed. Different ions, salts and other related methods for improving the ion exchange process and mechanical properties are described as well as applications of strengthening.


Karlsson S.,Linnaeus University | Karlsson S.,Glafo AB | Jonson B.,Linnaeus University | Reibstein S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 3 more authors.
Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A | Year: 2013

In this paper, colouration of the tin side of commercial soda-lime-silica float glass by copper ion exchange is described and characterised. Data on the resulting concentration versus depth profiles, absorbance versus depth profiles, UV-Vis spectra and CIE-Lab colour coordinates are reported. Fundamental aspects of the process of colouration are described and discussed. Optimum saturation of the colour is achieved after ion exchange at 520°C for 10 h or at 500°C for 20 h. The depth of the coloured layer increases with increasing treatment time. At the same time, a linear dependency is found between the values of a and b in the CIE-Lab colour space for variations of treatment time and temperature. The later indicates broad tunability of colouration between different shades of ruby and varying colour saturation. It is shown that colour arises from a redox reaction between copper species and residual tin ions, and that the depth of the coloured layer is governed by the position of the tin hump. The critical concentration of tin and copper to achieve colour formation was found to be ∼0·25 mol% and >1 mol%, respectively.


Peter Sundberg J.,Glafo AB | Karlsson S.,Linnaeus University | Brochot D.,Corning Inc. | Simons J.,INISMa | Strubel C.,Schott AG
Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A | Year: 2010

In this paper, the use of a surface ablation cell (SAC) to quantify the elemental compositional depth profile of float glass is presented. High spatial resolution data of 10-20 nm is reported. Elemental resolution is also high so that, for example, the tin hump, which is not normally observed in low iron borofloat glasses, is recorded with good resolution. The technique is based on a wet dissolution of the glass surface on a layer by layer basis using ordinary equipment available in most chemical laboratories. Due to its simple nature, the procedure required further collaborative investigation with other instrumental surface analytical techniques. The results obtained compare very favourably with those obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). It is shown that sample pretreatment is important and directly affects the outcome of the investigation. The effects of acid concentration, and probably most other experimental parameters, are also shown to affect the step length in the profiling process. The future use of the SAC as a complementary technique for surface studies is foreseen both in laboratories and also in the production environment as a reliable off-line technique for surface characterisation. The technique was developed through a collaborative workprogramme devised by Technical Committee 2 (Chemical Durability and Analysis) a technical sub-committee of the International Commission on Glass (ICG/TC-02).


Karlsson S.,Linnaeus University | Jonson B.,Linnaeus University | Sundberg P.,Glafo AB | Stalhandske C.,Glafo AB
Glass Technology: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part A | Year: 2010

The surface ablation cell (SAC), a laboratory equipment for determining surface concentration profiles, has been utilised to characterise surface ion exchange processes in float glass. In this paper, single-side ion exchange is reported. Data on the ion concentration profiles were used to calculate diffusion coefficients as well as the activation energy for K +-Na+ ion exchange. The air-sides of float glass samples were treated with two different salt mixtures, (I) 2:1 KNO3:KCI, and (II) 1:2 KNO3:KCl, (both by weight), and heated to different temperatures below Tg, 460-520°C. The diffusion coefficients calculated using a Green's function approach were in the ranges (I) 1.4×10-11 to 6.8×10-11 and (II) 1.8×10-11 to 6.0×10-11 cm2/s while those calculated using Boltzmann-Matano were in the ranges (I) 5.7×10 -11 to 14×10-12 and (II) 3.4×10-12 to 6.0×10-12 cm2/s. Average values of the activation energies obtained through the Green's function were (I) 111.0 kJ/mol and (II) 99.8 kJ/mol for the different salt mixtures.

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