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Fleming P.S.,Queen Mary, University of London | Koletsi D.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Seehra J.,GKT Dental Institute | Pandis N.,University of Bern
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Objectives To compare the methodological quality of systematic reviews (SRs) published in high- and low-impact factor (IF) Core Clinical Journals. In addition, we aimed to record the implementation of aspects of reporting, including Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram, reasons for study exclusion, and use of recommendations for interventions such as Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Study Design and Setting We searched PubMed for systematic reviews published in Core Clinical Journals between July 1 and December 31, 2012. We evaluated the methodological quality using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Results Over the 6-month period, 327 interventional systematic reviews were identified with a mean AMSTAR score of 63.3% (standard deviation, 17.1%), when converted to a percentage scale. We identified deficiencies in relation to a number of quality criteria including delineation of excluded studies and assessment of publication bias. We found that SRs published in higher impact journals were undertaken more rigorously with higher percentage AMSTAR scores (per IF unit: β = 0.68%; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 1.04; P < 0.001), a discrepancy likely to be particularly relevant when differences in IF are large. Conclusion Methodological quality of SRs appears to be better in higher impact journals. The overall quality of SRs published in many Core Clinical Journals remains suboptimal. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Kawasaki K.,GKT Dental Institute | Kawasaki K.,Niigata University | Porntaveetus T.,GKT Dental Institute | Oommen S.,GKT Dental Institute | And 8 more authors.
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2012

Objective: Tongue papillae are critical organs in mastication. There are four different types of tongue papillae; fungiform, circumvallate, foliate, and filiform papillae. Unlike the other three taste papillae, non-gustatory papillae, filiform papillae cover the entire dorsal surface of the tongue and are important structures for the mechanical stress of sucking. Filiform papillae are further classified into two subtypes with different morphologies, depending on their location on the dorsum of the tongue. The filiform papillae at the intermolar eminence have pointed tips, whereas filiform papillae with rounded tips are found in other regions (anterior tongue). It remains unknown how the shape of each type of filiform papillae are determined during their development. Bmp signalling pathway has been known to regulate mechanisms that determine the shapes of many ectodermal organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Bmp signalling in filiform papillae development. Design: Comparative in situ hybridization analysis of six Bmps (Bmp2-Bmp7) and two Bmpr genes (Bmpr1a and Bmpr1b) were carried out in filiform papillae development. We further examined tongue papillae in mice over-expressing Noggin under the keratin14 promoter (K14-Noggin). Results: We identified a dynamic temporo-spatial expression of Bmps in filiform papillae development. The K14-Noggin mice showed pointed filiform papillae in regions of the tongue normally occupied by the rounded type. Conclusions: Bmp signalling thus regulates the shape of filiform papillae. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lohi M.,GKT Dental Institute | Tucker A.S.,GKT Dental Institute | Sharpe P.T.,GKT Dental Institute
Developmental Dynamics | Year: 2010

Previously two reporter mice, TOPgal and BATgal, have been used to uncover the spatial patterns of canonical Wnt activity up to the bell stage of tooth development. To further understand the function of this pathway, not only at the early developmental stages of odontogenesis but also in postnatal teeth, we have used Axin2-lacZ mice a direct reporter of canonical Wnt activity. As tooth development progresses, Axin2 expression becomes localized to the primary and secondary enamel knots, and the underlying mesenchyme. In postnatal teeth, Axin2 expression is observed in developing odontoblasts, in the dental pulp and concentrated around the developing roots. Expression is excluded from the ameloblasts and associated with the enamel-free zones at the tip of the molar cusps. This expression identifies new roles for Wnt signaling in defining the regions where enamel will form, and controlling root development at late stages of tooth development. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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