Duan H.,Xiamen University |
Hu Q.,GIZ GmbH
Journal of Cleaner Production
To successfully implement climate policy at different levels, local officials should have a better understanding of climate change issues. Using 191 valid questionnaires collected in 13 district cities in Jiangsu, China, this study found that local officials are aware of climate change and that they demonstrate a strong willingness to improve their understanding of climate science, management approaches, and climate policy. Further analysis reveals that officials working outside of the climate-related field showed stronger demands for enhancing their knowledge about climate change than those working in the field. The research suggests that the Jiangsu government would need to integrate capacity building into climate policy and take a systematic approach to equip local officials with newest scientific knowledge, policy developments, and necessary capacities for addressing climate change and pushing forward local low carbon development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source
Lorenz C.,GIZ GmbH
Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
This article deals with the accuracy of statistical records used for political decision making and international comparative analysis. In developing countries, even major macroeconomic indicators can include data inadequacies and methodological differences in data generation between statistical agencies. Existing data show that total health expenditure as a percentage of GDP is about 50 lower in Pakistan than in other low-income countries (LIC). To determine whether these results reflect the actual situation in Pakistan or whether they are due to statistical error, Pakistan produced National Health Accounts (NHA) for the first time in 2009 to assess health spending in 2005-6. Improved NHA estimates are also being made for 2007-8, which will be based on the following: public expenditure data published with time lags; survey results for 2007-8; and multivariate analyses of data from 2010 and 2011 surveys on health-specific out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, healthcare providers, non-profit institutions and census data on autonomous bodies and large hospitals.Since these data are not yet available, a best estimate of health expenditure has to be made to support policy decision making and to provide a point of comparison for future NHA results. Health expenditure data are available from different data sources and estimates have been made by applying different methods, leading to a range of health spending estimates. As a result of this diversity of estimates and data, each with its own inaccuracies or gaps, there was a clear need to triangulate the available information and to identify a best possible estimate.This article compares estimates of household health expenditure from different sources, such as the Household Integrated Economic Survey, the Family Budget Survey and National Accounts (NA). The analysis shows that health expenditure figures for Pakistan have been underestimated by both WHO and the NHA. An adjusted estimate shows OOP spending to be twice as high as previously thought. Previous per capita total health expenditure estimates ranged from $US16 to $US19. The revised estimate showed per capita total health expenditure to be $US33, based on NA data. This puts Pakistan in a different position in international comparisons, with health expenditure exceeding the level of India ($US32.5) and the average of all LIC ($US24.5).Methodological differences in estimating expenditure and the multiple and conflicting estimates might cause stakeholders to make potentially adverse or even erroneous policy decisions on the allocation of resources. Because policy makers make decisions based on the estimates provided, the provision of a best estimate, made following a review of the advantages and limitations of existing sources and methods, is key. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: EE-21-2014 | Award Amount: 1.92M | Year: 2015
A project proposed by Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH in cooperation with the Climate Protection and Energy Agency of Baden-Wrttemberg/Germany and European competence centres on Energy Performance Contracting (EnPC) in Croatia, Greece and Slovenia, a competence centre for e-learning in Slovakia, and key actors for the promotion of EnPC at the local level in Latvia, Serbia, Romania and Ukraine. Objective of EnPC-INTRANS is to increase the market uptake of technologies for the improvement of energy efficiency (EE) in public buildings and services by means of fostering private sector participation in innovative financing schemes for EE investments. This will be achieved by means of implementing large-scale capacity building for local public authorities and SMEs to jointly set-up and use adapted EnPC models for EE services (topic 3 in the scope of the EE21 call). European best practices in EnPC are adapted to local conditions (WP2) and presented to relevant target groups in the partner countries (WP3). Training needs of local public authorities and SMEs are assessed in intensive stakeholder dialogue, providing the basis for design and implementation of efficient training concepts and tools making use of advanced on-line technologies for European-wide capacity development (WP3). Trainers are trained throughout the partners networks (WP4) and the developed training concepts and tools are demonstrated in national and international cooperation seminars (WP5). The achieved impact of large-scale capacity development on the European market for EnPC projects is continuously monitored and evaluated (WP6), and the project results are disseminated to all EU28 member states (WP7). At least 50 trained trainers and 3,000 trained experts will directly benefit from the project and cater for the initiation and development of EnPC projects in partner countries and beyond, providing for energy savings of more than 60 GWh per year when implemented. (The lead Partner) GIZ has been commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) with the implementation of the project Energy Efficiency in Municipalities in the Ukraine. The EC through this Horizon 2020 project thus contributes complementarily to achieving the overall objectives of the BMZ-funded project as the BMZ-funded project supports the implementation of the EU Horizon project. None of the activities covered by this work programme are funded by any other funding.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: EE-07-2014 | Award Amount: 1.98M | Year: 2015
MultEE aims to improve the ease and quality of energy efficiency (EE) policy planning and implementation in the projects partner countries and beyond, addressing the challenges of evidence-based policy-making in a multi-level governance setting. It contributes to making EE and sustainable energy planning vertically consistent between the national, regional and local level, to facilitating horizontal coordination between policy levels and to improving the quality of monitoring energy efficiency. The project pursues a two-faceted, yet integrated, approach in order to reach this objective: (1) building on a mapping of European best practices and experience from a pilot project carried out by the lead partner, country-specific solutions for effective monitoring and verification (M&V) based on bottom-up data will be developed and their implementation supported; (2) the implementation of innovative M&V schemes will be facilitated via coordination mechanisms developed and introduced together with the partners, aimed at spurring on exchange and cooperation between policy levels. The project pays particular attention to providing opportunities for peer learning between old and new EU Members States and neighbouring countries from Southeast Europe to partner countries from the EU and its South-Eastern neighbourhood as well as to disseminating results beyond partner countries and to other policy areas. One of the specificities of multEE is that its activities target the interplay between administrative levels rather than focusing on a single one of them. Particular focus will be put on capacity-building for the entities and officials involved with EE planning in the partner countries. MultEE will be put in practice by experienced partners within a strong consortium led by GIZ, drawing upon solid experience and a well-established network of contacts to ensure dissemination and high impacts within and beyond the project.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: LCE-14-2015 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2016
The overall objective of BioVill is to develop regional bioenergy concepts in Slovenia, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia and Romania up to the investment stage in order to become bioenergy villages. This will increase the market uptake of bioenergy on the basis of cooperation with partners from countries with established bioenergy markets (Austria, Germany). The following specific objectives and activities will contribute to the overall objective: (1) 5 villages have developed the institutional set-up and energy management concept for becoming a bioenergy village up to investment stage for physical infrastructure with at least one bioenergy village in Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania and Macedonia. The local market uptake of bioenergy value chains are to be proven by signing of letters of commitment. (2) Mobilization of 62 GWh/y heat and power based on solid biomass in at least 5 target villages. The individual biomass value chains will include the production and distribution of heat and electricity. The concepts include technical and non-technical aspects for each target village. (3) Increase public acceptance of sustainable bioenergy and raise public awareness on commercial opportunities for farmers, foresters and the bioenergy value chain as a whole by means of public participation. This will be realized by ensuring the public participation of the inhabitants (10,000 households) in the target regions for setting up at least 5 villages across the 5 implementing countries. (4) Capacity Building of users and key actors in business and legislation to manage the bioenergy villages in a sustainable way and be able to either enact the EU based national legislation or make full use of the opportunities that these new markets create for them. In the set-up of bioenergy villages along the bioenergy value chains it will involve at least 500 participants in order to have a critical mass of key actors.