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Yaoundé, Cameroon

Lescuyer G.,British Petroleum | Mvongo-Nkene M.N.,GIZ | Mvongo-Nkene M.N.,University of Dschang | Monville G.,CIFOR | And 4 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2015

Despite its inclusion in the forest laws and the support of the international community, Multiple-use Forest Management (MFM) remains poorly implemented in tropical forests. Two specific barriers limit the effectiveness of this approach in the timber concessions of Central Africa. On one hand, formal attempts at MFM are poorly conceived either because they promote forest uses, such as ecological functions or tourism, that have little relevance to direct stakeholders, or because they rely on the legal definition of local users' rights, which is disconnected to customary rules and practices. The article develops an alternative approach for six timber concessions in Cameroon, Gabon and the Democratic Republic of Congo, in which the foremost purpose of MFM is to solve or reduce actual conflicts of uses, notably regarding agriculture, hunting, chainsaw milling and firewood collection. On the other hand, the costs of implementing MFM measures are rarely estimated and assigned to concerned actors. The costs of resolving conflicts of use were evaluated in the same concessions, based on consensual solutions elaborated by the logging companies, the forestry and agriculture administrations and the local people. In half of these concessions, the cost of MFM equals or exceeds 1.5 million dollars in the next fifteen years. Several trade-offs are possible between these stakeholders, combining tax relief, technical and financial support to local development, and reduction of some illegal practices. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mabalay M.R.,Philippine Rice Research Institute | Nelson A.,International Rice Research Institute | Setiyono T.,International Rice Research Institute | Quilang E.J.,Philippine Rice Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
34th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing 2013, ACRS 2013 | Year: 2013

The RIICE project aims to develop a national rice information system that provides timely and accurate information on rice area, production, yield estimates, and production losses due to calamities to address food security and crop insurance purposes. This project makes use of remote sensing imagery from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) platforms to generate reliable rice area maps and derives crop status information from the imagery as input to a crop growth simulation model (CGSM) to estimate yield. All image analysis is performed with MAPscape-RICE in a fully automatic way and yield estimation is performed with Oryza2000 CGSM. Preliminary results of the project in Leyte, Philippines show promising results. Source

Hamid S.,Health Services Academy | Malik A.U.,Health Integrated | Kamran I.,GIZ | Ramzan M.,University of Wah
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare | Year: 2014

Background: Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse. Methods: A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients. Results: All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfed with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identifed, namely, "Working in the spirit of serving humanity", "Working against all odds", and "Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability". Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the frst two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The frst narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system. Conclusion: The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain aspects of its organization are key, including numbers (available quantity), skill mix (health team balance), distribution (urban/rural), and working conditions (compensation, nonf-nancial incentives, and workplace safety). This study has identifed the need to reform policies for retaining the nursing workforce. Simple measures requiring better management practices could substantially improve the working environment and hence retention of nurses. © 2014 Hamid et al. Source

Wilson D.C.,Imperial College London | Rodic L.,Wageningen University | Cowing M.J.,Independent Consultant | Velis C.A.,University of Leeds | And 6 more authors.
Waste Management | Year: 2015

This paper addresses a major problem in international solid waste management, which is twofold: a lack of data, and a lack of consistent data to allow comparison between cities. The paper presents an indicator set for integrated sustainable waste management (ISWM) in cities both North and South, to allow benchmarking of a city's performance, comparing cities and monitoring developments over time. It builds on pioneering work for UN-Habitat's solid waste management in the World's cities. The comprehensive analytical framework of a city's solid waste management system is divided into two overlapping 'triangles' - one comprising the three physical components, i.e. collection, recycling, and disposal, and the other comprising three governance aspects, i.e. inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and proactive policies. The indicator set includes essential quantitative indicators as well as qualitative composite indicators. This updated and revised 'Wasteaware' set of ISWM benchmark indicators is the cumulative result of testing various prototypes in more than 50 cities around the world. This experience confirms the utility of indicators in allowing comprehensive performance measurement and comparison of both 'hard' physical components and 'soft' governance aspects; and in prioritising 'next steps' in developing a city's solid waste management system, by identifying both local strengths that can be built on and weak points to be addressed. The Wasteaware ISWM indicators are applicable to a broad range of cities with very different levels of income and solid waste management practices. Their wide application as a standard methodology will help to fill the historical data gap. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Misganaw G.,Aksum University | Wuletaw Z.,GIZ | Ayalew W.,National Agricultural Research Institute NARI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

This study was aimed at understanding of the general indigenous dairy cattle breeding activities of the community and major conformational traits particularly used by smallholder farmers in selecting better indigenous dairy cows. The study was conducted in Fogera, Dembia and Wogera districts of northern Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Interviews using pre-tested structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to generate the data. SPSS was employed to analyze the data. The most common mating system in all sites was natural controlled mating, but free mating and AI also exist in small frequencies. The first breeding objective of the community was obtaining better milk yield. The farmers' trait preferences was mostly includes higher milk off-take, faster growth rate, adaptability to local feed conditions and diseases, and breeding ability, traction and butter fat yield of the cattle. In doing so, Fogera cattle breed was preferred by most of the participants of the study, due to better expression of the dairy traits. Among the selection criteria of farmers for indigenous dairy cows, navel size, udder and teat size, and pelvic width were commonly stated and hold the first three ranks of selection in all districts. Source

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