Langmuir | Year: 2010
The bicontinuous inverted cubic (QII) phases of amphiphiles in water have many practical applications. It is necessary to understand the stability of these phases as a function of composition and ambient conditions in order to make the best use of them. Moreover, many biomembrane lipids and some biomembrane lipid extracts form QII phases. The stability of Q II phases in a given lipid composition is closely related to the susceptibility of that composition to membrane fusion: changes in composition that stabilize QII phases usually increase the rate of membrane fusion. However, the factors determining QII phase stability are not fully understood. Previously, an expression was derived for the curvature free energy of QII phases with respect to that of the lamellar (L α) phase using a model for the curvature energy with terms up to fourth order in curvature as formulated by Mitov. Here this model is extended to account for the effects of water content on QII phase stability. It is shown that the observed Lα/QII phase-transition temperature, transition enthalpy, and transition kinetics are all sensitive to water content. The same observables also become sensitive to small noncurvature energy contributions to the total, free-energy difference between the QII and Lα phases, especially the unbinding energy in the Lα phase. These predictions rationalize earlier observations of QII phase formation in N-monomethylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine that otherwise appear to be inconsistent. The model also provides a fundamental explanation of the hysteresis typically observed in transitions between the Lα and QII phases. It is an accurate model of QII phase stability when the ratio of the volume fraction of the lipid in the QII phase unit cell is ≤0.5. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source
Givaudan | Date: 2015-08-12
Provided is an enzymatic process that hydrolyzes spinach plant material to form a salt-enhancing ingredient, the formed salt-enhancing ingredient, food products comprising said salt-enhancing ingredient and a method of enhancing the salty taste of food products.
Givaudan | Date: 2015-04-29
An encapsulated flavor, comprising a core material, flavor material and a coating material, the core material comprising a finely-divided native starch, xanthan gum and konjac, the combined weight proportion of the xanthan gum and konjac present in the encapsulated flavour being from about 4% to about 16%, and the relative weight proportions of xanthan gum to konjac being from about 20:80 to about 80:20. The encapsulated flavors may be completely gelatin-free, while retaining the desirable qualities of gelatin.
Givaudan | Date: 2015-09-15
Compounds of the formula 1 wherein, R is hydrogen, alkyl or substituted alkyl, aryl or substituted aryl, are useful intermediates in the synthesis of fragrance ingredients such as Ambrox 2
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: BIOTEC-3-2014 | Award Amount: 11.37M | Year: 2015
Oxygen functionalities are key functional groups in many of todays chemicals and materials. The efficient introduction of oxygen-functionalities into raw materials are key chemical transformations in bulk and fine chemicals. Innovative bio-catalytic oxidation routes using molecular oxygen (from air) under benign and mild (pH) conditions such as ambient temperature and pressure can greatly improve the sustainability and economics of processes, but were so far mainly been applied in the pharma segments. In this segment, the enzyme-catalyzed step often represents the highest added value and the high price of the end-product (> 1000/kg) justifies less than optimal enzyme production and limitations in its catalytic efficiency. In order to achieve the widening of industrial application of enzymatic bio-oxidation processes to also larger volume but lower price chemical markets, ROBOX will demonstrate the techno-economic viability of bio-transformations of four types of robust oxidative enzymes: P450 monooxygenases (P450s), Baeyer-Villiger MonoOxygenase (BVMOs), Alcohol DeHydrogenase (ADH) and Alcohol OXidase (AOX) for which target reactions have already been validated on lab-scale in pharma, nutrition, fine & specialty chemicals and materials applications. ROBOX will demonstrate 11 target reactions on large scale for these markets in order to prepare them for scale up to commercial-scale plants. ROBOX is industry-driven with 2 major industrial players and 6 SMEs. It will assess the potential of technologies applied to become platform technologies technologies (multi-parameter screening systems, computational methodologies, plug bug expression systems) for broad replication throughout the chemical industry. The markets addressed within ROBOX represent a joint volume of over 6.000 ktons/year. The introduction of bio-oxidation processes is expected to bring substantial reductions in cost (up to -50%), energy use (-60%), chemicals (-16%) and GHG-emissions (-50%).