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Akbar S.,P.A. College | Gyana Prasuna R.,Gitam Institute Of Science And Technology
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

Ever increasing population and industrialization has resulted in heavy pollution and waste generation. The main aim of this project lies in waste management and synthesis of pectinase enzyme which plays a crucial role in sewage treatment. Twenty moulds were isolated from decaying fruits and municipal waste soil sample on SDA and were further screened for pectinolytic enzyme production. Screening, isolation and identification of Aspergillus oryzae was done based on larger clearance zones in pectin - Congo red agar media and pectinase enzyme production was carried out inYEP media by submerged fermentation. Further production media was formulated using various fruit wastes (peels) in different compositions. Growth characteristics of the isolate and kinetics of the Exopectinase enzyme were optimized. Sapota peel in combination with groundnut oil cake (GOC) had been proved to be the best media for production of high potential Exopectinase. A oryzae has its highest enzyme activity at 500 C temperature at 4.5 pH concentration level. It takes 60 mins of time duration to give best enzyme activity in1.5% substrate concentration. Source

Khanam R.,P.A. College | Prasuna R.,Gitam Institute Of Science And Technology
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

Trametes hirsuta (GenBank Accession Number: AB429065.1), a basidiomycete fungus was used for the production of laccases using different carbon sources namely glucose, sawdust, rice bran and wheat bran. Use of organic medium (agricultural/industrial wastes) is aimed to bring down the cost of media. Among these four carbon sources, the best laccase production was obtained in sawdust followed by wheat bran and rice bran. To improve laccases production, ghee residue (1%W/V), a byproduct of milk industry was added to the above media. For comparison, media with peptone (1% W/V) was used. The use of ghee residue in the formulation of the laccases production media by Trametes hirsuta has been found to be beneficial in laccases production. The production of laccases in presence of peptone and ghee residue was 85 folds and 7 folds more respectively than in the medium with only glucose. Similarly an increase of 11 folds and 9 folds in laccases production was obtained in the media containing wheat bran with peptone and ghee residue respectively as compared to the controls with only wheat bran. The production was found to be lowered in the medium with saw dust when peptone or ghee residue was added additionally. The production of laccases was found to be lowest in media containing only Glucose (0.44 U/ml). The optimum temperature was found to be 70°C and pH 5.0 for the laccases activity. The ghee residue and peptone seem to be acting as inducers in the production of laccases. Source

Akbar S.,P.A. College | Prasuna R.G.,Gitam Institute Of Science And Technology | Khanam R.,P.A. College
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2012

Protoplast fusion is one of the potential tools in strain development for bringing genetic recombination and developing hybrid strains in filamentous fungi. Intra specific and inter specific protoplast fusion between these strains is an efficiently applied technique in the improvement of asexually reproducing fungi. The main objective of this project is to modify and generate hybrid strains of the previously selected and characterized fungi, A. oryzae, A. carbonarius, A. flavipes. These fungal isolates were previously mutated both physically and chemically to increase the pectinolytic activity. Further, the best pectinase producing mutants were subjected to intra specific protoplast fusion to produce fusants with high potential in pectinase production. The commercial enzyme preparation like Novozyme 234 containing (glucanase and chitinase) was used to digest fungal cell wall. The obtained colonies were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify the potential pectinase producing fusant colony. Fusants with high productivity rate than their respective parent strains were successfully achieved. A. oryzae exhibited a tremendous difference in productivity rate of 57 U/ml compared to its mutant strain showing 42 U/ml. However, a moderate rise in the productivity rate was observed in A. carbonarius of 59 U/ml compared to its parent strain showing 53 U/ml. A minute elevation in productivity rate was detected in A. flavipes of 49 U/ml when compared with 39 U/ml showing parent strain. Source

Akbar S.,P.A. College | Gyana Prasuna R.,Gitam Institute Of Science And Technology | Theja B.,P.A. College | Theja B.,Gitam Institute Of Science And Technology | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

The present work was carried out with an aim to isolate an Exo-pectinase producing fungal strain, to optimize physical factors of the enzyme activity and to formulate a media for the cost effective production of the enzyme. Screening, isolation and identification of Aspergillus tamarii and Aspergillus carbonarius were done. Various process variables like pH, temperature and incubation time of the growth medium were optimized. Modified media using natural wastes as C and N sources were used in combination for quantitative estimation of the enzyme activity. Optimization of various physical variables like pH, temperature, incubation period and substrate concentration for enzyme activity were done. Out of the various C and N combinations tested, citrus peel and groundnut oil cake(GOC) were found to be the best C and N source for A.tamarii, Groundnut hull and groundnut oil cake were proved to be the best C and N source with respect to A.carbonarius. Orange peel and groundnut peel, a major waste by-product of food industries could be effectively used as C-source and GOC, a major waste of oil industry 'can be used as N-source thus, making the process cost effective. Source

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