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Chattopadhyay P.,Defence Research Laboratory | Dhiman S.,Defence Research Laboratory | Borah S.,Defence Research Laboratory | Borah S.,Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica

Essential oil based insect repellents are environment friendly and provide dependable personal protection against the bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects. In the present study, optimized mixture of three essential oils was embedded into the ethylcellulose (EC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) polymers to develop essential oils based patch type mosquito repellent formulation. The developed formulation was characterized for various physico-chemical properties, oil release efficiency and essential oil-polymer interaction. Repellent activity of the formulation was evaluated against Ae. (S) albopictus mosquitoes and compared with commercially available synthetic insecticide based mosquito repellent cream Odomos® in the laboratory. The developed patches were 100% flat and there was no interaction between oil components and the excipients. Patches were smooth, homogenous and provided excellent mosquito repellent activity comparable to Odomos® under laboratory condition. Morphological and physico-chemical characterization indicated that the formulation was stable and suitable with the polymeric combination. The patch formulation did not show any inhalation toxicity in experimental Wistar rat. The repellent patches developed and evaluated currently, may provide a suitable, eco-friendly, acceptable and safe alternative to the existing synthetic repellent formulations for achieving protection against mosquitoes. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kandimalla R.,Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology | Dash S.,Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science | Kalita S.,Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology | Choudhury B.,Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology

Herbal medicine is popularized worldwide due to its ability to cure the diseases with lesser or no side effects. North Eastern part of India comes under one of the world biodiversity hotspots which is very rich in traditional herbal medicine. Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) is one such plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, liver ailments and diabetes by traditional healers. The present study was aimed to scientifically validate this folk knowledge and to develop an herbal remedy through evaluating bioactive guided fractions of A. reticulata (AR) bark against hepatotoxicity and inflammation using in vitro and in vivo models. Results of this study demonstrates that among all fractions of AR bark, methanol extract and its water fraction possess strong anti-oxidant ability and showed protection against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines and rats. Both the fractions also exhibit dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Water fraction showed potent response in the entire tests conducted than methanol extract, which states that polar components of the AR bark methanol extract were responsible for these activities. Further, from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action, the results revealed that AR bark showed liver protection and anti-inflammatory response through inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. © 2016 Kandimalla, Dash, Kalita, Choudhury, Malampati, Kalita and Kotoky. Source

Das M.K.,Dibrugarh University | Kalita B.,Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science

The polyphenolic flavonoid Rutin possesses multiple therapeutic effects out of which the anti-inflammatory potential has been well established in the recent literatures. The oral bioavailability of Rutin is very low necessitating its novel drug delivery approach. Phyto-phospholipid complex (phytosomes) is helpful in enhancing oral bioavailability and transdermal permeation of polyphenols. In the present work, Rutin phytosomes (RN-P) were developed and characterized to establish its feasibility for transdermal application in inflammatory conditions. Phytosomes were prepared in five molar ratios of Rutin (0.5 - 1.0) to Phosphatidylcholine (1.0 - 0.5). All RN-Ps showed aqueous solubility higher than pure Rutin. Partition coefficient results indicated the lipophilic nature of free Rutin as well as all RN-Ps with most satisfactory value found at 3.11 ± 0.08 with F3 formulation. Discrete vesicular structures of RN-Ps observed in TEM study. Results of the FT-IR, DSC and XRD studies confirmed the phyto-phospholipid complex formation. XRD reports revealed the reduction in crystallinity of Rutin when in phytosomes form with F3 found to be the least crystalline. SEM studies confirmed the disappearance of rod shaped crystals of Rutin in phytosome formulations. The ex vivo skin permeation study across excised rat abdominal skin confirmed the higher permeability of RN-Ps (33 ± 1.33 %) over pure Rutin (13 ± 0.87 %). The observations made in the present work suggest that phyto-phospholipid complex of Rutin can increase its skin uptake to treat inflammatory conditions in arthritis, rheumatism, athletic aches and may able to deliver the drug for a long duration avoiding the problems associated with oral administration. © 2014 Malay K Das and Bhupen Kalita. Source

Ahmed A.B.,Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science | Nath L.K.,Dibrugarh University
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery

Objectives: The purpose of the study was to develop a floating matrix tablet of Nicorandil using blends of hydrophilic cellulose and pH-independent acrylic polymer to improve the therapeutic effectiveness of the drug in cardiovascular disease.Methods: Nicorandil tablets were prepared by direct compression and evaluated for drug-excipients compatibility, in-vitro buoyancy and in-vivo γ-scintigraphy study. The selected formulation (FT5) was also evaluated for stability study and the in-vivo absorption in rabbits to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters with the commercially available immediate release tablet of Nicorandil.Results: DSC and FT-IR studies confirmed the absence of incompatibility and were found stable at refrigerator temperature (2-8°C) and at 25C/60% RH. The in-vivo γ-scintigraphy studies revealed that the system was floated for a period of 6-7 h in the stomach and in-vivo absorption study showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC increased by 3 fold and MRT by 2.5 fold) as compared to the marketed formulation.Conclusion: In conclusion, the developed Nicorandil floating matrix tablet improved the pharmacokinetics parameters (AUC and MRT) in rabbit plasma with expected lowering in side effects potential. © 2016 Taylor and Francis. Source

Chattopadhyay P.,Defence Research Laboratory | Dhiman S.,Defence Research Laboratory | Devi K.A.,Girijananda Chowdhury Institute of Pharmaceutical Science | Banerjee S.,Defence Research Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors

Background: Mosquito repellents and emanators confer protection against mosquito bites through spatial action of emanated vapours which are released into the adjoining environment. Synthetic insecticides released into the environment in ultra low volume vapour phase deter the mosquitoes from biting humans in a protected space. Methods. Formulation patches were prepared using the solvent evaporation method over a backing membrane and using Dibutylphthalate (DBT) as a plasticizer. The effect of formulation variables on the deltamethrin release from the patch matrices were studied under accelerated conditions, whereas, HPLC was used for quantitative estimation of deltamethrin. The prepared patch formulations were subjected to physicochemical studies, such as, deltamethrin content, thickness, weight variation, percent moisture content, moisture uptake, surface area and surface pH determination. Deltamethrin-polymer interaction and compatibility was ascertained using DSC and FT-IR, while surface morphology and deltamethrin distribution in the patch were studied using SEM technique. Repellent activity of the patch formulations was evaluated against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results: Blends of polymeric combinations of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethyl-cellulose (EC) with admixture of deltamethrin provided prolonged repellent activity against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Physicochemical characterisation indicated the suitability of deltamethrin patch formulation with the polymeric combinations of PVP and EC. Patches were very effective against laboratory reared Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. No significant difference was observed between the performance of test patches and commercially available repellent cream Mosqshield®. Conclusion: Deltamethrin loaded patches provided effective repellency against Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. The study emphasised that deltamethrin released to the environment in low concentration could be an excellent spatial repellent against hematophagous mosquitoes. © 2013 Chattopadhyay et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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