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Yang Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Yang W.S.,Sungkyunkwan University | Yu T.,Sungkyunkwan University | Sung G.-H.,Mushroom | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Ethnopharmacological relevance Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is one of the representative traditional herbal medicines prepared from Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae) in Korea. It has been reported that KRG exhibits a lot of different biological actions such as anti-aging, anti-fatigue, anti-stress, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Although systematic studies have investigated how KRG is able to ameliorate various inflammatory diseases, its molecular inhibitory mechanisms had not been carried out prior to this study. Materials and methods In order to investigate these mechanisms, we evaluated the effects of a water extract of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG-WE) on the in vitro inflammatory responses of activated RAW264.7 cells, and on in vivo gastritis and peritonitis models by analyzing the activation events of inflammation-inducing transcription factors and their upstream kinases. Results KRG-WE reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), protected cells against NO-induced apoptosis, suppressed mRNA levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and interferon (IFN)-β, ameliorated EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis, and downregulated peritoneal exudate-derived NO production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected mice. The inhibition of these inflammatory responses by KRG-WE was regulated through the suppression of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and by subsequent inhibition of activating transcription factor (ATF)-2, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and IRF-3 activation. Of ginsensides included in this extract, interestingly, G-Rc showed the highest inhibitory potency on IRF-3-mediated luciferase activity. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of KRG-WE could be due to its inhibition of the p38/JNK/TBK1 activation pathway. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Endale M.,Kyungpook National University | Endale M.,Medical Center | Im E.J.,Kyungpook National University | Lee J.Y.,Kyungpook National University | And 9 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation

Despite a multitude of reports on anti-inflammatory properties of ginseng extracts or individual ginsenosides, data on antiarthritic effect of ginseng saponin preparation with mixed ginsenosides is limited. On the other hand, a combined therapy of safe and inexpensive plant-derived natural products such as ginsenosides can be considered as an alternative to treat arthritis. Our previous in vitro data displayed a strong anti-inflammatory action of red ginseng saponin fraction-A (RGSF-A). We, herein, report a marked antiarthritic property of RGSF-A rich in ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, and Rb2. Collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) mice were treated with RGSF-A or methotrexate (MTX) for 5 weeks. Joint pathology, serum antibody production and leukocye activation, cytokine production in the circulation, lymph nodes, and joints were examined. RGSF-A markedly reduced severity of arthritis, cellular infiltration, and cartilage damage. It suppressed CD3+/CD69+, CD4+/ CD25+, CD8+ T-cell, CD19+, B220/CD23 + B-cell, MHCII+/CD11c+, and Gr-1 +/CD11b+ cell activations. It further suppressed anti-CII- or anti-RF-IgG/IgM, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and IL-6 secretions but stimulated IL-10 levels in the serum, joint, or splenocyte. RGSF-A attenuated arthritis severity, modified leukocyte activations, and restored cytokine imbalances, suggesting that it can be considered as an antiarthritic agent with the capacity to ameliorate the immune and inflammatory responses in CIA mice. © 2014 Mehari Endale et al. Source

Endale M.,Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Medical Center | Lee W.M.,Kyungpook National University | Kwak Y.-S.,Ginseng Corporation Central Research Institute | Kim N.-M.,Ginseng Corporation Central Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology

Advancements in rheumatoid-arthritis-(RA) therapies have shown considerable progresses in the comprehension of disease. However, the development of new potential agents with relative safety and efficacy continues and natural compounds have been considered as alternatives to identify new entities. Since previous in-vivo data and our in-vitro findings showed that torilin has a strong anti-inflammatory property, we further investigated its effect against collagen-induced-arthritis-(CIA) in mice. CIA-induced DBA/1J mice were treated with torilin or methotrexate (MTX) for 5-weeks. Arthritis severity was evaluated by arthritic score and joint histopathology. Draining lymph node (dLN), joint and peripheral-blood mononuclear-cell (PBMC) counts, and activation/localization of T-/B-lymphocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils were examined by FACS analysis. Serum anti-type-II-collagen-(CII) antibody levels and cultured-splenocyte and serum cytokines were also evaluated. Torilin markedly reduced CIA-induced arthritic score, histopathology and leukocyte counts. Besides, torilin suppressed CIA-activated T-cells including CD3 +, CD3 +/CD69 +, CD8 +, CD4 + and CD4 +/CD25 + in dLNs or joints. It also modified CD19 + or CD20 +/CD23 + (B-cells), MHCII +/CD11c + (DCs) and Gr-1 +/CD11b + (neutrophil) subpopulations. It further depressed total anti-CII-IgG, anti-CII-IgG1 and anti-CII-IgG2a antibody productions. Moreover, while IFN-γ and IL-10 were not affected, torilin suppressed CIA-induced serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels. Interestingly, torilin also blocked IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-6 cytokines while it did not affect IL-10 but enhanced IL-4 in splenocytes. These results show that torilin attenuated arthritis severity, modified leukocyte activations in dLNs or joints, and restored serum and splenocyte cytokine imbalances. Torilin may have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties with the capacity to ameliorate the inflammatory response in CIA-mice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Yayeh T.,Kyungpook National University | Jung K.-H.,Chungnam National University | Jeong H.Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Park J.-H.,Kyungpook National University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research

Korean red ginseng has shown therapeutic effects for a number of disease conditions. However, little is known about the antiinflammatory effect of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGSF) in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we showed that RGSF containing 20(S)-protopanaxadiol type saponins inhibited nitric oxide production and attenuated the release of tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, RGSF down-regulated the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxyginase-2, IL-1β, TNF-α, GMCSF, and IL-6. Furthermore, RGSF reduced the level of TNF-α in the serum and protected mice against LPS mediated endotoxic shock. In conclusion, these results indicated that ginsenosides from RGSF and their metabolites could be potential sources of therapeutic agents against inflammation. © The Korean Society of Ginseng. Source

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