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Fraundorfer M.,GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies
Austral: Brazilian Journal of Strategy and International Relations | Year: 2013

Brazil's Zero Hunger Strategy is nowadays regarded as an international model in the global fight against hunger and poverty. I will analyse the mechanisms Brazil created to allow other governments and international organisations to benefit from the experience Brazil collected in the Zero Hunger Strategy. Based on the theoretical concept of "nodal governance" I will describe four of these global governance mechanisms (the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, the WFP Centre of Excellence Against Hunger, the IBSA Trust Fund and the FAO-Brazil Trust Fund) as essential nodes which helped to 1) strengthen Brazil's exercise of influence in its international fight against hunger and poverty and 2) reinforced the global governance of food security. This analysis demonstrates how Brazil has been able to raise its profile as a leader in fighting hunger and poverty in the global South.

Mulder P.,VU University Amsterdam | de Groot H.L.F.,VU University Amsterdam | de Groot H.L.F.,Tinbergen Institute | Pfeiffer B.,GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies
Ecological Economics | Year: 2014

We present a detailed analysis of energy intensity developments across 23 service sectors in 18 OECD countries over the period 1980-2005. We find that the shift towards a service economy has contributed to lower overall energy intensity levels in the OECD, but this contribution would have been considerably larger if the service sector had realized the same degree of energy efficiency improvements as the manufacturing sector. In most OECD countries energy intensity levels in services tend to decrease relatively slow, especially after 1995. If we control this trend for the impact of structural changes within the services sector - by means of a decomposition analysis - we find that in about one-third of the OECD countries, energy intensity levels in services have increased over time. The impact of structural changes on aggregate energy intensity dynamics in services has increased considerably after 1995, highlighting a relatively poor energy efficiency performance within a wide range of service sectors. We show that the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a potentially important role here. Using panel data regression analysis, we find a limited role for energy prices in explaining variation in energy productivity, while climate conditions clearly impact energy productivity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Seemann M.,GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies
Water International | Year: 2016

This article applies a multi-scalar approach to examine the dominant human–nature interactions that underlie recent formalization policies and the (re)configuration of hydrosocial territories in the Tiraque Valley, Bolivia. From a political ecology perspective, it seeks to examine how hydrosocial territories are (re)configured by Bolivia’s representative and inclusive discourses and forms of water ‘governmentalities’. It analyses how water territories are locally materialized by technological designs, legal structures and power relations that may promote unequal distribution of resources, water rights and decision-making power in conflict resolution processes. This article challenges ‘pro-indigenous’ and inclusive discourses that promote formal recognition of customary ‘water territories’. © 2016 International Water Resources Association.

Holbig H.,GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies | Gilley B.,Portland State University
Politics and Policy | Year: 2010

The contemporary politics of China reflect an ongoing effort by the ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to reclaim the right to rule in light of the consequences of economic development, international pressures, and historical change. China's regime stands out within the Asian region for its success in the effort of adapting to change and ensuring its continuity. Focusing on changes in China's elite discourse during the reform period and particularly during the last decade, the aim of this article is to elaborate the relative importance of various sources of legitimacy as they are shifting over time, as well as inherent dilemmas and limitations. There is evidence of an agile, responsive, and creative party effort to relegitimate the postrevolutionary regime through economic performance, nationalism, ideology, culture, governance, and democracy. At the same time, the study finds a clear shift in emphasis from an earlier economic-nationalistic approach to a more ideological-institutional approach. © The Policy Studies Organization. All rights reserved.

Gobien S.,GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies | Vollan B.,University of Innsbruck
American Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2016

Mutual aid among villagers in developing countries is often the only means of insuring against economic shocks. We use "lab-in-the-field experiments" in Cambodian villages to study solidarity in established and newly resettled communities. Our experimental participants were part of an agricultural land-distribution project for which they signed up voluntarily. Half of our sample voluntarily resettled one and a half years before this study. Playing a version of the "solidarity game," we identify the effect of voluntary resettlement on willingness to help anonymous fellow villagers. We find that resettled farmers transfer substantially less money to their fellow villagers than farmers who have not resettled. Our experimental results indicate greater vulnerability on the part of resettled households in the initial years after resettlement. © 2015 The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.

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