Gujranwala, Pakistan
Gujranwala, Pakistan

GIFT University is a university located in Gujranwala established in 2002 by the Government of Punjab, Pakistan.The University offers a variety of study choices in the major professional fields including Business Administration, Accounting and Finance, Computer Science, Information Technology, Textile and Fashion Design, and English Language & Literature. A broad range of elective courses are available in most programs. Wikipedia.

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Kashif M.,GIFT University | Khattak A.,Prince Sultan University
British Food Journal | Year: 2017

Purpose: Following the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between ethical decision-making attitude, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and past behavior; to examine ethical intentions of frontline employees with their love of money as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach: The authors collected data from 310 frontline employees (FLEs) in five US-based fast food chains (McDonald’s, Subway, KFC, Pizza Hut, and Hardees) across three cities of Pakistan, using self-administered questionnaires. The authors adopt the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique to test the theoretical model. Findings: The authors demonstrate that LOM is a significant moderator. The relationships between two dimensions of TPB – the ethical attitude and subjective norms – and ethical intentions are much stronger for FLEs with a lower LOM orientation. Originality/value: The inclusion of LOM to enrich TPB framework, investigation of ethical intentions of frontliners employed in US-based fast food chains and a developing country context are unique products of this study. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

Haddadi F.,GIFT University | Prangnell P.,University of Manchester
Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition 2013, MS and T 2013 | Year: 2013

High power ultrasonic welding (USW) is an energy efficient process with potential for automotive applications in joining dissimilar metals. However, to date, there have been few reports on the grain structure evolution that occurs in the weld zone. A detailed investigation has been performed of the evolution of the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZs) seen in Al-Steel USWs, using high resolution EBSD. In Al to un-coated steel welds severe deformation was found to occur early in the process, close to the join line, leading to the development of an ultrafine grain structure by dynamic recrystallization, which coarsened with longer welding times and increasing weld temperatures. In contrast, the grain structure evolution was seen to be delayed in Zn coated steel welds due to the lower temperature and deformation that resulted from reduced friction and liquation of the zinc coat at the weld interface. Copyright © 2013 MS&T'13®.

Kashif M.,GIFT University | Altaf U.,GIFT University | Ali S.,GIFT University | Asif U.,GIFT University | And 3 more authors.
Trziste | Year: 2012

This qualitative study explores Pakistani children's views regarding TV advertising and outlines the factors impacting their choice of snack brands. Thirty-six children from three schools were selected purposefully and qualitative data was collected through focus group sessions held in schools. Findings suggest that children understand the intended message of snack brand advertisers. Diff erent variants of brands focusing on some product- and non-product related elements are considered imperative, contributing towards purchase. Children identify brands through jingles and cartoon characters and are well-aware of the logic behind TV advertising. This study highlighted children as knowledgeable, straightforward, fun-loving and rational consumers, all of which have some important implications for food marketers. The research is an original contribution to the work in the fi eld of consumer socialization; it is intended to help the readers understand children's attitude with regard to TV advertising, and identify some of the elements contributing to the choice of snack brands among children.

Wales P.W.,GIFT University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: There has been clinical enthusiasm for treating short bowel patients with human recombinant growth hormone and/or glutamine in hopes of reducing parenteral nutrition dependency. It has been more than a decade since Byrne and colleagues reported enhanced absorption of nutrients, improved weight gain, and reduction in parenteral nutrition requirements with the administration of a combination of human growth hormone (HGH) and glutamine in patients with short bowel syndrome. Other studies have reported inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of growth hormone with or without glutamine supplementation for adult patients with short bowel syndrome. SEARCH STRATEGY: Electronic searches were performed to identify all publications describing randomised controlled trials of the use of human growth hormone with or without glutamine for the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of human growth hormone with or without glutamine for patients with short bowel syndrome were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data from the published studies. The statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5 software. Follmann's method was used for cross-over studies. MAIN RESULTS: Five studies were included in the review. Human growth hormone with or without glutamine appears to provide benefit in terms of increased weight (MD 1.66 Kg; 95% CI 0.69 to 2.63;P = 0.0008), lean body mass (MD 1.93 Kg; 95% CI 0.97 to 2.90; P = 0.0001) energy absorption (MD 4.42 Kcal; 95% CI 0.26 to 8.58; P = 0.04) and nitrogen absorption (MD 44.85 g; 95%CI 0.20 to 9.49; P = 0.04) for patients with short bowel syndrome. The single RCT that focused on parenteral nutrition (PN) requirements demonstrated decreased PN volume and calories and number of infusions in patients who received HGH with or without glutamine supplementation. Only patients who received HGH with glutamine maintained statistically significant PN reductions at 3 month follow-up. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a positive effect of human growth hormone on weight gain and energy absorption. However, in the majority of trials, the effects are short-lived returning to baseline shortly after cessation of therapy. The temporary benefit calls into question the clinical utility of this treatment. To date, the evidence is inconclusive to recommend this therapy. Consideration should be made to studying patients during the active phase of intestinal adaptation rather than in the setting of chronic intestinal failure. The role of HGH in paediatric short bowel syndrome remains unknown.

Piper H.G.,GIFT University | Wales P.W.,GIFT University
Current Opinion in Gastroenterology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) account for a major source of morbidity in children with intestinal failure. Many of these patients require long-term central venous access, placing them at significant risk for these infections. The purpose of this review is to highlight the most current strategies and interventions for minimizing CRBSIs in this population. RECENT FINDINGS: Strategies for the prevention of CRBSIs continue to evolve, although most have not been specifically evaluated in children with intestinal failure. Some of the more recent interventions that are likely to be effective in this population include creating standardized protocols for catheter insertion and maintenance, ethanol lock therapy, and occasional use of antimicrobial catheters and dressings. SUMMARY: Every effort must be made to prevent CRBSIs in infants and children with intestinal failure. Disease specific risk factors must be considered when determining the best approach for infection prevention. Because of their long-term access needs, checklists and protocols to maintain strict sterile technique at the time of catheter insertion are useful. Additionally, these children often have some degree of intestinal bacterial overgrowth secondary to dilation and dysmotility. Therefore, the use of antimicrobial locks, catheters and dressings likely provide benefit for some patients. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Basit W.,National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences | Lodhi F.,GIFT University | Bhatti U.,French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation
International Arab Journal of Information Technology | Year: 2016

Software maintenance is a major source of expense in software projects. A proper evolution process is a critical ingredient in the cost-efficient development of high-quality software. A special case of software evolution is refactoring that cannot change the external behaviour of the software system yet should improve the internal structure of the code. Hence, there is always a need to verify after refactoring, whether it preserved behaviour or not. As formal approaches are hard to employ, unit tests are considered the only safety net available after refactoring. Refactoring may change the expected interface of the software therefore unit tests are also affected. The existing tools for refactoring do not adequately support unit test adaptation. Also, refactoring tools and guidelines may introduce semantic and syntactic errors in the code. This paper qualitatively and quantitatively analyses data from an empirical investigation involving 40 graduate students, performed against a set of semantic and syntactic defects. Findings from the expert survey on refactoring support have also been shared. The analysis in this paper shows that there are notable discrepancies between preferred and actual definitions of refactoring. However, continued research efforts are essential to provide Guide Lines (GL) in the adaptation of the refactoring process to take care of these discrepancies, thus improving the quality and efficiency of the software development. © 2016, Zarka Private Univ. All rights reserved.

Feridun M.,University of Greenwich | Feridun M.,Eastern Mediterranean University | Shahbaz M.,GIFT University
International Journal of Green Energy | Year: 2016

The present article uses the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure to identify the impact of immigration and economic growth on electricity consumption in the case of North Cyprus using annual data from 1977 to 2007. The results suggest that both economic growth and immigration are in a long-run equilibrium relationship with electricity consumption. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Javed R.,Lahore College for Women University | Farhan S.,Lahore College for Women University | Humdullah S.,GIFT University
Current Bioinformatics | Year: 2015

In the field of drug research and development, the investigation of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is a vital research area. Many clinical tools are used in the industry providing the broad lists of DDIs. But these tools can return unpredictable results, only limited to specific types of interaction. Also these tools lack the synchronized database of drug-drug interaction. In our research work, we are proposing a novel pattern recognition based technique that investigates the patterns of natural language processing for extraction of drug-drug interaction. The proposed technique is novel in the sense that is uses a smaller feature set, computationally less expensive, yet yielding better results as compared to previous techniques. The proposed technique is based on Bioinformatics and NLP (Natural Language processing). For this research paper, we have collected biomedical data such as drug names, drug identification numbers (ID’s) and different types of drug-drug interaction sentences from DrugBank (a free online resource). Through parsing the sentences, we investigated the patterns for drugdrug interaction extraction. For performance evaluation of our proposed work, we applied three different types of classification models i.e. Naïve Bayes, J48 (decision tree) and Random Forest. The results achieved by our technique are: F-score 82.4%, Precision 81.6% and Recall 83.2%. The best accuracy achieved is with Random Forest, which is 99.0%. Comparison with previous research shows that our proposed technique provides better results. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Lee S.,GIFT University | Lee K.,POSCO | De Cooman B.C.,GIFT University
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2010

Ultra-fine grained TRIP steels (UFG-TRIP) containing 6wt%Mn were produced by intercritical annealing. An ultra-fine grained microstructure with a grain size less than 1μm was obtained. The formation mechanism of the high volume fraction of retained austenite was investigated by dilatometry, XRD and magnetic saturation. The fraction of retained austenite was strongly dependent on the annealing temperature. The tensile properties were also found to be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature with poorer mechanical properties being observed at higher annealing temperatures. It was found that the stabilization of the retained austenite was both a composition and size-effect, made possible by the grain refinement due to the reversely transformed martensite. © (2010) Trans Tech Publications.

Zaffar M.,Kinnaird College for Women | Zaffar M.,GIFT University | Javed F.,GIFT University | Arshad N.,The University of Lahore
Energy Procedia | Year: 2015

Efficient energy management of computing infrastructure has been shown to reduce the operational expenses of enterprises as well as contribute in reducing the carbon foot-print of the organization. Various studies have proposed methods to reduce the energy consumption of computing devices at server farms, commercial offices and in consumer households. However, a system that impacts the habits of consumers requires rigorous inspection. From our previous experiences, we found that most of the techniques used in evaluating the response of devices to efficient energy management strategies fall short of representing the actual consumption. This has severe consequences for utilization and adaptation of efficiency measures. To this end in this paper we propose a unique simulation framework which accurately represents the consumption habits of the computing devices and, as our results show, provide a more realistic picture of the impact of efficiency measures both on consumer impact and on efficiency response. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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