Eşfahān, Iran
Eşfahān, Iran

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Nemati M.,University of Zanjan | Amanlou H.,University of Zanjan | Khorvash M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Moshiri B.,Ghiam Dairy Complex | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

This study evaluated the effects of particle size (PS) and dietary level of alfalfa hay (AH) on rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, eating behavior, and growth performance in dairy calves during transition from liquid to solid feed. Sixty newborn dairy calves (41. ±. 2.5,. kg of body weight) were used in a 2. ×. 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary AH level (medium, 12.5%, or high, 25%, on DM basis) and PS (fine. =. 1. mm or medium. =. 3. mm, as geometric means) of AH. Hence, the dietary treatments were (1) medium level of AH with fine PS (M-FPS), (2) medium level of AH with medium PS (M-MPS), (3) high level of AH with fine PS (H-FPS), and (4) high level of AH with medium PS (H-MPS). Particle size of AH did not affect total DMI (TDMI) during the preweaning period, although TDMI was greater for calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS during the postweaning and overall periods. Calves fed MPS spent more time eating solid feed and ruminating and less time on nonnutritive oral behaviors compared with FPS calves. The dietary level of AH did not affect behavioral parameters. Average daily gain of calves was not affected by dietary treatment before weaning. During the postweaning and overall periods, average daily gain was greater in calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS at the 25% AH level, but this effect was absent with 12.5% AH. Furthermore, the rumen pH values on d 35 and 70 of the study were greater for MPS than for FPS, regardless of the dietary level of AH. Effects of AH level, PS, and their interaction did not affect blood glucose concentrations in developing calves. These results indicate that feed intake, feeding behavior, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration may be affected by rations differing in forage PS; thus, providing calves with MPS can improve calf performance and reduce their nonnutritive oral behaviors. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | Agresearch Ltd., Isfahan University of Technology, Arak University, Ghiam Dairy Complex and University of Zanjan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

This study evaluated the effects of particle size (PS) and dietary level of alfalfa hay (AH) on rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, eating behavior, and growth performance in dairy calves during transition from liquid to solid feed. Sixty newborn dairy calves (41 2.5,kg of body weight) were used in a 2 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary AH level (medium, 12.5%, or high, 25%, on DM basis) and PS (fine = 1mm or medium = 3mm, as geometric means) of AH. Hence, the dietary treatments were (1) medium level of AH with fine PS (M-FPS), (2) medium level of AH with medium PS (M-MPS), (3) high level of AH with fine PS (H-FPS), and (4) high level of AH with medium PS (H-MPS). Particle size of AH did not affect total DMI (TDMI) during the preweaning period, although TDMI was greater for calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS during the postweaning and overall periods. Calves fed MPS spent more time eating solid feed and ruminating and less time on nonnutritive oral behaviors compared with FPS calves. The dietary level of AH did not affect behavioral parameters. Average daily gain of calves was not affected by dietary treatment before weaning. During the postweaning and overall periods, average daily gain was greater in calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS at the 25% AH level, but this effect was absent with 12.5% AH. Furthermore, the rumen pH values on d 35 and 70 of the study were greater for MPS than for FPS, regardless of the dietary level of AH. Effects of AH level, PS, and their interaction did not affect blood glucose concentrations in developing calves. These results indicate that feed intake, feeding behavior, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood -hydroxybutyrate concentration may be affected by rations differing in forage PS; thus, providing calves with MPS can improve calf performance and reduce their nonnutritive oral behaviors.


Omidi-Mirzaei H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Khorvash M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Ghorbani G.R.,Isfahan University of Technology | Moshiri B.,Ghiam Dairy Complex | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of the step-up/step-down (SUSD) and step-down (STP) methods of milk feeding on the performance, growth parameters, blood metabolites, and health of dairy calves. For this purpose, 45 Holstein male calves (3. d of age and 41 ± 3. kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the following milk feeding groups: (1) conventional (CONV; 4. L/d milk from d 1 to 52, and 2. L/d milk from d 53 to 56 of the study), (2) STP (6. L/d milk from d 1 to 29, and 4. L/d milk from d 30 to 45 of the study followed by feeding 2. L/d milk from d 46 to 56 of the study), and (3) SUSD (6. L/d milk from d 1 to 5, 8. L/d milk from d 6 to 15, 10. L/d milk from d 16 to 35, 8. L/d milk from d 36 to 42, 6. L/d milk from d 43 to 47, 4. L/d milk from d 48 to 52 of the study followed by feeding 2. L/d milk from d 53 to 56 of the study). Calves were weaned on d 56 and followed until d 70 of the study period. Animals had ad libitum access to the same starter ration during the entire study period (d 3 to 70). Starter intake, total dry matter intake, and average daily gain were greater in the SUSD calves than those in the CONV and STP treatments during the preweaning period. The SUSD procedure was found to increase body weight during the entire study and improved body length, wither height, heart girth, hip height, and hip width on d 56 and 70 of the study compared with the STP and CONV calves. The SUSD treatment increased blood glucose concentration on d 35 compared with CONV and STP procedures. The STP group had a higher starter intake than the CONV and SUSD animals. The STP animals exhibited a higher plasma concentration of total protein and BHBA than did the SUSD animals during the preweaning period. Neither the SUSD nor the STP procedure negatively affected the fecal score. In conclusion, the SUSD milk feeding procedure was found to improve the performance of dairy calves compared with the STP and CONV procedures. However, it appears that the STP procedure induces earlier reticulo-rumen developement in dairy calves than does the SUSD procedure. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


PubMed | University of Calgary, Isfahan University of Technology, Arak University and Ghiam Dairy Complex
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of the step-up/step-down (SUSD) and step-down (STP) methods of milk feeding on the performance, growth parameters, blood metabolites, and health of dairy calves. For this purpose, 45 Holstein male calves (3d of age and 41 3 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the following milk feeding groups: (1) conventional (CONV; 4 L/d milk from d 1 to 52, and 2 L/d milk from d 53 to 56 of the study), (2) STP (6 L/d milk from d 1 to 29, and 4 L/d milk from d 30 to 45 of the study followed by feeding 2L/d milk from d 46 to 56 of the study), and (3) SUSD (6 L/d milk from d 1 to 5, 8 L/d milk from d 6 to 15, 10 L/d milk from d 16 to 35, 8L/d milk from d 36 to 42, 6 L/d milk from d 43 to 47, 4 L/d milk from d 48 to 52 of the study followed by feeding 2 L/d milk from d 53 to 56 of the study). Calves were weaned on d 56 and followed until d 70 of the study period. Animals had ad libitum access to the same starter ration during the entire study period (d 3 to 70). Starter intake, total dry matter intake, and average daily gain were greater in the SUSD calves than those in the CONV and STP treatments during the preweaning period. The SUSD procedure was found to increase body weight during the entire study and improved body length, wither height, heart girth, hip height, and hip width on d 56 and 70 of the study compared with the STP and CONV calves. The SUSD treatment increased blood glucose concentration on d 35 compared with CONV and STP procedures. The STP group had a higher starter intake than the CONV and SUSD animals. The STP animals exhibited a higher plasma concentration of total protein and BHBA than did the SUSD animals during the preweaning period. Neither the SUSD nor the STP procedure negatively affected the fecal score. In conclusion, the SUSD milk feeding procedure was found to improve the performance of dairy calves compared with the STP and CONV procedures. However, it appears that the STP procedure induces earlier reticulo-rumen developement in dairy calves than does the SUSD procedure.

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