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Gent, Belgium

Ghent University is a highly ranked Dutch-speaking public university located in Ghent, Belgium. It is one of the larger Flemish universities, consisting of 41,000 students and 9,000 staff members. The current rector is Anne De Paepe . As of 2014, Ghent University ranks as 90th globally according to Times Higher Education, 129th according to QS World University Rankings and 70th according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities. It is therefore considered to be a top university, globally.It was established in 1817 by King William I of the Netherlands. After the Belgian revolution of 1830, it was administered by the newly formed Belgian state. French became the academic language until 1930, when Ghent University became the first Dutch-speaking university in Belgium. In 1991, the university was granted major autonomy and changed its name from State University of Ghent to its current name. Wikipedia.

De Coninck T.,Ghent University
The American journal of sports medicine | Year: 2013

Little is known about radial displacement (RD) of polyurethane (PU) scaffolds, intended for partial meniscus defect substitution; no data are available on whether rim thickness influences RD and whether RD correlates with clinical outcome scores. The meniscus is not extruded preoperatively, but RD occurs after scaffold implantation. A thicker rim will limit RD, and there is no correlation between RD and clinical outcome. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-six patients were implanted with a PU scaffold (8 lateral, 18 medial). Radial displacement (mm) was evaluated on magnetic resonance images preoperatively and at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. At each time point, it was determined whether a correlation existed between the rim and RD. Clinical outcome was determined using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain as well as the Lysholm knee scoring scale, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Radial displacement of lateral scaffolds was not significantly different (P = .178) either preoperatively (mean ± SD, 3.42 ± 0.99 mm) or at 3 months (4.82 ± 0.59 mm), 1 year (4.55 ± 0.87 mm), or 2 years postoperatively (4.10 ± 0.93 mm). No correlation was observed between the rim and lateral RD at all time points. Medial scaffold RD increased significantly (P < .001) from preoperative values (2.17 ± 0.84 mm) to those at 3 months (4.25 ± 0.89 mm), 1 year (4.43 ± 1.01 mm), and 2 years postoperatively (4.41 ± 0.96 mm). A strong negative correlation between medial RD and the rim was observed at all time points. There was no significant correlation between clinical outcome scores and RD, either preoperatively or postoperatively. This study demonstrated that limited medial meniscal RD was present preoperatively but increased by 2 mm after scaffold implantation. Lateral RD was also present preoperatively but did not increase after scaffold implantation. Importantly, a strong negative correlation was found between the rim and postoperative medial RD; a thicker rim limited RD. However, in the lateral compartment, rim thickness did not correlate with RD because RD was already strongly present preoperatively. Finally, no correlations were observed between scaffold RD and clinical outcome scores, either preoperatively or postoperatively.

Rosseel Y.,Ghent University
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2012

Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a vast field and widely used by many applied researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. Over the years, many software packages for structural equation modeling have been developed, both free and commercial. However, perhaps the best state-of-the-art software packages in this field are still closed- source and/or commercial. The R package lavaan has been developed to provide applied researchers, teachers, and statisticians, a free, fully open-source, but commercial-quality package for latent variable modeling. This paper explains the aims behind the development of the package, gives an overview of its most important features, and provides some examples to illustrate how lavaan works in practice.

Van Montagu M.,Ghent University
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2011

When we discovered that crown gall induction on plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a natural event of genetic engineering, we were convinced that this was the dawn of a new era for plant science. Now, more than 30 years later, I remain overawed by how far and how rapidly we progressed with our knowledge of the molecular basis of plant growth, development, stress resistance, flowering, and ecological adaptation, thanks to the gene engineering technology. I am impressed, but also frustrated by the difficulties of applying this knowledge to improve crops and globally develop a sustainable and improved high-yielding agriculture. Now that gene engineering has become so efficient, I had hoped that thousands of teams, all over the world, would work on improving our major food crops, help domesticate new ones, and succeed in doubling or tripling biomass yields in industrial crops. We live in a world where more than a billion people are hungry or starving, while the last areas of tropical forest and wild nature are disappearing. We urgently need a better supply of raw material for our chemical industry because petroleum-based products pollute the environment and are limited in supply. Why could this new technology not bring the solutions to these challenges? Why has this not happened yet; what did we do wrong?. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Lamkanfi M.,Ghent University
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2012

Inflammasomes are a set of intracellular protein complexes that enable autocatalytic activation of infllammatory caspases, which drive host and immune responses by releasing cytokines and alarmins into circulation and by inducing pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death mode. The infllammasome type mediating these responses varies with the microbial pathogen or stress factor that poses a threat to the organism. Since the discovery that polymorphisms in infllammasome genes are linked to common autoimmune diseases and less frequent periodic fever syndromes, infllammasome signaling has been dissected at the molecular level. In this review, we present recently gained insight on the distinct infllammasome types, their activation and effector mechanisms, and their modulation by microbial virulence factors. In addition, we discuss recently gained knowledge on the role of deregulated infllammasome activity in human autoinfllammatory, autoimmune, and inflectious diseases. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Heyde K.,Ghent University | Wood J.L.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2011

Shape coexistence in nuclei appears to be unique in the realm of finite many-body quantum systems. It differs from the various geometrical arrangements that sometimes occur in a molecule in that in a molecule the various arrangements are of the widely separated atomic nuclei. In nuclei the various "arrangements" of nucleons involve (sets of) energy eigenstates with different electric quadrupole properties such as moments and transition rates, and different distributions of proton pairs and neutron pairs with respect to their Fermi energies. Sometimes two such structures will "invert" as a function of the nucleon number, resulting in a sudden and dramatic change in ground-state properties in neighboring isotopes and isotones. In the first part of this review the theoretical status of coexistence in nuclei is summarized. Two approaches, namely, microscopic shell-model descriptions and mean-field descriptions, are emphasized. The second part of this review presents systematic data, for both even- and odd-mass nuclei, selected to illustrate the various ways in which coexistence is observed in nuclei. The last part of this review looks to future developments and the issue of the universality of coexistence in nuclei. Surprises continue to be discovered. With the major advances in reaching to extremes of proton-neutron number, and the anticipated new "rare isotope beam" facilities, guidelines for search and discovery are discussed. © 2011 American Physical Society.

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