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Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

Hashmi M.S.,Karakoram International University | Kamran M.A.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology | Bakhsh K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Bashir M.A.,Ghazi University
Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

The increasing need of food and fibre is a big challenge around the globe especially for the researchers. The cotton is one of the important crops all over the world as well as in the study area which contribute in textile industry as well as a number of food items. In context of Pakistan, cotton contributes directly or indirectly in exports, hence, earning foreign exchange. In this regard, socio-economic factors play important role in the agricultural production and Scale Efficiency (SE) measure is one of the most important indicators which can show the influences of varying range of the endowment and socio-economic factors. This piece of work contributes by estimating the SE of the cotton farms in selected study area. Moreover, it describes the influences of socio-economic factors on SE of cotton farms. To estimate the SE, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method has been used. For the determination of influences of socio-economic factors, Tobit censored linear regression (parametric) and Kruskal Wallis & Bonferroni comparison tests (non-parametric) analyses have been considered. In total seven socio-economic factors; agriculture farm type, farm machinery, farm size, farmers’ age, qualification, experience and working style of the farmers have been considered. It was found that farm size and farmers working style have, statistically, very significant influences on SE of cotton farms and farmers working as part time are the most efficient. Moreover, renters’ cotton farms are more efficient than owners’ farms. It was also concluded that social factors influence SE, statistically, insignificantly. However, old aged farmers are more efficient than the young farmers, farmers having university education are more efficient than the other levels, and most experienced farms are the most efficient. © 2016, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All rights reserved. Source

Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab | Akram W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan T.,University of Punjab | Haider M.S.,University of Punjab | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Reduced sensitivity to insecticides in insect pests often results in control failures and increases in the dose and frequency of applications, ultimately polluting the environment. Reduced sensitivity to emamectin benzoate, a broad-spectrum agrochemical belonging to the avermectin group of pesticides, was reported in house flies (Musca domestica L.) collected from Punjab, Pakistan, in 2013. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk for resistance development, biochemical mechanism, and cross-resistance potential to other insecticides in an emamectin benzoate selected (EB-SEL) strain of house flies. A field-collected strain showing reduced sensitivity to emamectin was re-selected in the laboratory for five consecutive generations and compared with a laboratory susceptible (Lab-Susceptible) reference strain, using bioassays. The field strain showed rapid development of resistance to emamectin (resistance ratio (RR) increased from 35.15 to 149.26-fold) as a result of selection experiments; however, resistance declined when the selection pressure uplifted. The EB-SEL strain showed reduction in resistance to abamectin, indoxacarb, and thiamethoxam. The results of synergism experiments using piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that the metabolic resistance mechanism was not responsible in developing emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain. In conclusion, the risk for the rapid development of emamectin resistance under continuous selection pressure suggests using a multifaceted integrated pest management approach for house flies. Moreover, the instable nature of emamectin resistance in the EB-SEL strain and lack of cross-resistance to other insecticides provide windows for the rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action. This will ultimately reduce emamectin selection pressure and help improving management programs for house flies without polluting the environment. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Iqbal N.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Iqbal N.,Ghazi University | Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab | Saeed S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
PeerJ | Year: 2015

The responses of termite species to bait depend upon the quality of the food used in the stations. Woods are the most common food sources for termites but different termite species behave differently to different wood species and types. The knowledge of the preference status of different wood species to a termite species helps in effective monitoring and baiting program. The current study was carried out to evaluate the preference of 21 wood species to the termite, Microtermes mycophagus in the field by no-choice and choice feeding tests. The results indicated silk cotton tree and sacred fig woods as the most preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 71.21±5.09% and 68.38±7.27% in no-choice test and 95.02±1.65% and 91.69±2.07% in choice tests, respectively. White cedar was the least preferred wood species with mean mass losses of 7.49 ± 1.64% and 13.92 ± 1.89% in no choice and choice feeding tests, respectively. Based on present studies, sapwood of silk cotton tree and sacred fig may be used in effective monitoring and baiting program against M. mycophagus. © 2015 Iqbal et al. Source

Amin M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali A.,Ghazi University | Aslam M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Lee D.J.,Dankook University
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2016

Field crops are subjected to numerous inconsiderate climatic hazards that negatively affect physiological processes, growth and yield. Drought is one of the major abiotic factors that limits the agricultural productivity especially in the arid and semi-arid areas of the globe. Silicon (Si) is a naturally occurring beneficial nutrient which modulates plant growth and development events and has been known to improve the crop tolerance to abiotic stresses. With the objective to investigate the role of silicon nutrition on maize hybrids under limited moisture supply, a two year field study was conducted during 2010-11 at Post Graduate Research Station (PARS), University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. We evaluated growth of two maize hybrids P-33H25 and FH-810 under well watered (100% field capacity) and water deficit situation (60% field capacity) as affected by Si application. Silicon was added in soil @ 100 mg/kg using Calcium Silicate as source. Water deficit condition significantly reduced agro-morphological and physiological attributes of maize plants. Silicon application significantly increased the plant height, leaf area index, yield and related attributes along with improvement in photosynthetic rate, leaf water status and osmotic adjustment under limited moisture supply. It was concluded that silicon application to droughtstressed maize enhanced its growth and yield owing to improved photosynthetic rate, higher osmotic adjustment, increased water status and lowered transpiration. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Source

Iqbal N.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Iqbal N.,Ghazi University | Evans T.A.,University of Western Australia | Saeed S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Khan H.A.A.,University of Punjab
Canadian Entomologist | Year: 2015

We evaluated the efficacy of fipronil baits in suppressing or eliminating field colonies of Microtermes mycophagus (Desneux) (Blattodea: Termitidae) an important subterranean termite pest in Pakistan. We tested two doses (10 and 30 ppm) of fipronil in toilet paper baits, chosen from laboratory repellency tests. We monitored four colonies for foraging activity for one month before baiting, and mapped foraging territories with termites marked with Nile Blue A and agonistic tests. Before the fipronil baits were installed there were averages of 782–1938 workers and soldiers per bait station in the four colonies. After baiting, the colonies were eliminated as there were no workers per bait station, whereas the control colony had an average of 1142 workers per bait station. The three possibly eliminated colonies consumed around 47 mg of fipronil formulation (4.7 mg active ingredient) in 45–90 days. Our results suggest that baits containing fipronil could provide an economical and feasible alternative for the management of M. mycophagus in structures and buildings in Pakistan. © Entomological Society of Canada 2015 Source

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