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Gilbert S.F.,University of Michigan | Soliman A.S.,University of Michigan | Karkouri M.,University Ibn Zohr | Quinlan-Davidson M.,University of Michigan | And 9 more authors.
Breast Disease | Year: 2011

Introduction: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. Rates of MBC in Northern Africa vary by region. The age-standardized incidence for MBC is higher in Morocco than in Egypt, and the Egyptian rate is similar to the U.S of approximately 1/105. This study aimed at investigating the clinical and molecular characteristics of MBC in Egypt and Morocco. Methods: This case-case study included 211 cases from Egypt and 132 from Morocco. Tumor tissues were available for 47 Egyptian and 18 Moroccan patients. Medical record information was abstracted for patients' demographics, medical history, and treatment. BRCA2 protein expression status was examined in Egyptian and Moroccan tumors. Androgen receptor CAG repeat length was analyzed using the tissue samples in Egyptian MBC tumors and controls. Limited amount of tissues from Morocco did not allow for the analysis of CAG repeats. Results: Egyptian MBC patients had a significantly lower age at diagnosis (Egypt: 57.5 ± 15.1, Morocco: 63.9 ± 14.4, P=0.0002) and a higher prevalence of liver cirrhosis (Egypt: 28.0%, Morocco: 0.8%, P=< 0.0001). MBC patients also had higher tumor grades [I (0.9%), II (81.0%), III (18.1%)] in Egypt vs. [I (10.7%), II (81.0%), III (8.3%)] in Morocco (P=0.0017). The clinical and molecular characteristics of the groups from the 2 countries did not significantly differ. There was no significant difference with respect to BRCA2 expression amongst countries (Egypt: 28.9% non-wild type, Morocco: 27.8% non-wild type, P=0.9297) or CAG lengths amongst BRCA2 expression types in Egyptians (Wild type: 54.6% with CAG repeat lengths of 20+, Non-wild type: 50% with CAG repeat lengths of 20+, P=0.7947). Conclusions: Differences in MBC between Egypt and Morocco are more likely due to differences in other risk factors such as consanguinity and use of xenoestrogenic pesticides. © 2011/2012-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Gilbert S.F.,University of Michigan | Soliman A.S.,University of Michigan | Iniesta M.,University of Michigan | Eissa M.,University of Michigan | And 5 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Male Breast Cancer (MBC) is a rare disease in the U.S., accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancers. Rates of MBC in Africa are more variable than in the U.S., therefore, understanding the risk factors involved in a population like Egypt can clarify the nature of MBC. The polyglutamine tract (QT) is a variable region of the androgen receptor (AR), a nuclear receptor which is important in modulating androgen actions and generally inhibits growth in breast tissue. It is hypothesized that a long QT results in weaker AR activity over the lifetime, resulting in less AR mediated control over cellular division and higher risk of MBC. As a corollary, we expect to see a distribution skewed toward longer QTs in MBC patients compared to controls and overall relatively longer QT's in populations with higher rates of MBC. This study aimed to investigate for the first time the distribution of AR QT lengths among MBC patients in Egypt. Paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 44 Egyptian MBC patients were analyzed for this polymorphism. Amplification followed by fragment length analysis revealed QT length. For the control series, blood from 43 Egyptian males without a family or personal history of breast or prostate cancers was collected and analyzed similarly. There was no significant difference between patients and controls with respect to mean QT length (P = 0.84; means were 19.5 ± 2.8 and 19.3 ± 4.2, for patients and controls, respectively). Though, short QT lengths were more prevalent among controls (14.0%), but almost absent in cases (2.3%). Although the mean lengths were not different in cases and controls, the near absence of short tracts in cases suggests a possible protective effect of very short QT lengths against MBC. In populations in which there is variable incidence of MBC by region, investigations of the distribution of AR QT lengths are warranted to further delineate its role as a risk factor in MBC. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Uddin N.,University of Michigan | Fateem E.,Gharbiah Cancer Society and Gharbiah Cancer Registry | Hablas A.,Gharbiah Cancer Society and Gharbiah Cancer Registry | Seifeldin I.A.,Gharbiah Cancer Society and Gharbiah Cancer Registry | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Education | Year: 2012

We conducted focus groups with women from urban and rural areas in the Nile Delta region to investigate their attitudes regarding breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and screening. Six 60-min focus groups, each group comprised of 6-10 women with ages between 20-69 years, were conducted. Discussions included breast health, breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, early detection and screening, and communication for breast health. Almost all urban and rural women reported that women do not see physicians until they are seriously ill or have advanced cancer. They reported that oncologists or gynecologists were important to be seen first if a woman suspected breast cancer and primary care physician are not the primary line of cancer diagnosis. Other deterring factors besides distrust in primary care physicians included attitude that breast cancer equals death and lack of knowledge of early detection and screening techniques. Women felt that public education campaigns must be implemented to improve early detection and screening methods for breast cancer. The majority of beliefs regarding breast cancer and screening were common among urban and rural women. Culture-specific and tailored professional and public education programs in developing countries are essential for achieving downstaging cancer. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

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