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PubMed | University of Michigan, Gharbiah Cancer Society, Mansoura University, University Mohammed Premier and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The breast journal | Year: 2016

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a benign, frequently severe chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast. Its etiology remains unknown and reported cases vary in their presentation and histologic findings with an optimal treatment algorithm yet to be described owing mainly to the diseases heterogeneity. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic fibroinflammatory condition characterized by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with many IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Immunosuppressive therapy is considered to be an effective first-line therapy for IgG4-RD. We sought to clarify and classify chronic mastitis according to the histologic findings of IgG4-RD mastitis with respect to IGM and to develop a robust diagnostic framework to help select patients for optimal treatment strategies. Using the largest collection to date (43 cases from Egypt and Morocco), we show that despite sharing many features, IGM and IgG4-RD mastitis are separate diseases. To diagnostically separate the diseases, we created a classification schema-termed the Michigan Classification-based upon our large series of cases, the consensus statement on IgG4-RD, and the histologic description of IGM in the literature. Using our classification, we discerned 17 cases of IgG4-RD and 8 cases of IGM among the 43 chronic mastitis cases, with 18 indeterminate cases. Thus, our Michigan Classification can form the basis of rational stratification of chronic mastitis patients between these two clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous diseases.


Dey S.,University of Michigan | Soliman A.S.,University of Michigan | Hablas A.,Gharbiah Cancer Society | Seifeldein I.A.,Tanta Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
Breast | Year: 2010

Objective: To describe urban-rural differences in breast cancer incidence in Gharbiah, Egypt and to investigate if these differences could be explained by known risk factors of breast cancer. Methods: We used data from the population-based cancer registry of Gharbiah, Egypt to assess breast cancer incidence from 1999 through 2006. The Egyptian census provided data on district-specific population, age, and urban-rural classification. Incidence patterns of breast cancer by district and age-specific urban-rural differences were analyzed. Results: Overall, incidence rate of breast cancer was three to four times higher in urban areas than in rural areas (60.9/105-year for urban areas versus 17.8/105-year for rural areas; IRR=3.73, 95% CI=3.30, 4.22). Urban areas had consistently higher incidence of breast cancer across all age-groups for all years. Higher incidence of breast cancer was also seen in the more developed districts of Tanta and El-Mehalla. Conclusions: Higher incidence of breast cancer in urban and more developed populations might be related to higher exposure to xenoestrogens, as well as other endocrine disruptors and genotoxic substances. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Kim D.D.,University of Washington | Hutton D.W.,University of Michigan | Raouf A.A.,Menoufia University | Salama M.,Menoufia University | And 3 more authors.
Global Public Health | Year: 2015

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, and many developing countries report intermediate-to-high prevalence. However, the economic impact of screening and treatment for HCV in high prevalence countries has not been well studied. Thus, we examined the cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment for HCV infection for asymptomatic, average-risk adults using a Markov decision analytic model. In our model, we collected age-specific prevalence, disease progression rates for Egyptians and local cost estimates in Egypt, which has the highest prevalence of HCV infection (~15%) in the world. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how cost-effective HCV screening and treatment might be in other developing countries with high and intermediate prevalence. In Egypt, implementing a screening programme using triple-therapy treatment (sofosbuvir with pegylated interferon and ribavirin) was dominant compared with no screening because it would have lower total costs and improve health outcomes. HCV screening and treatment would also be cost-effective in global settings with intermediate costs of drug treatment (~$8000) and a higher sustained viral response rate (70–80%). © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Dey S.,University of Michigan | Soliman A.S.,University of Michigan | Hablas A.,Gharbiah Cancer Society | Seifeldin I.A.,Tanta Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

Breast cancer incidence is higher in developed countries with higher rates of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumors. ER+ tumors are caused by estrogenic exposures although known exposures explain approximately 50% of breast cancer risk. Unknown risk factors causing high breast cancer incidence exist that are estrogenic and development-related. Xenoestrogens are such risk factors but are difficult to study since developed countries lack unexposed populations. Developing countries have urban-rural populations with differential exposure to xenoestrogens. This study assessed urban-rural breast cancer incidence classified by hormone receptor status using data from Gharbiah population-based cancer registry in Egypt from 2001 to 2006. Urban ER+ incidence rate (per 100,000 women) was 2-4 times (IRR = 3.36, 95% CI = 4.84, 2.34) higher than rural incidence rate. ER-incidence rate was 2-3 times (IRR = 1.86, 95% CI = 2.38, 1.45) higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Our findings indicate that urban women may probably have a higher exposure to xenoestrogens. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Dey S.,University of Michigan | Hablas A.,Gharbiah Cancer Society | Seifeldin I.A.,Tanta Cancer Center | Ismail K.,Gharbiah Cancer Society | And 8 more authors.
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2010

Objective In previous studies, we have shown a three to four times higher urban incidence of breast cancer and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the Gharbiah Province of Egypt. We investigated the urban-rural incidence differences of gynaecologic malignancies (uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers) to explore if they show the same trend that we found for breast cancer. Design Cancer registry-based incidence comparison. Setting Gharbiah population-based cancer registry (GPCR), Tanta, Egypt. Sample All patients with uterine, ovarian and cervical cancer in GPCR from 1999 to 2002. Methods We calculated uterine, ovarian and cervical cancer incidence from 1999 to 2002. For each of the three cancers, we calculated the overall and age-specific rates for the province as a whole, and by urban-rural status, as well as for the eight districts of the province. Results Incidence of all three cancer sites was higher in urban than in rural areas. Uterine cancer showed the highest urban-rural incidence rate ratio (IRR = 6.07, 95% CI = 4.17, 8.85). Uterine cancer also showed the highest urban incidence in the oldest age group (70+ age category, IRR = 14.39, 95% CI = 4.24, 48.87) and in developed districts (Tanta, IRR = 4.14, 95% CI = 0.41, 42.04). Incidence rates by groups of cancer sites showed an increasing gradient of urban incidence for cancers related to hormonal aetiology, mainly of the breast and uterus (IRR = 4.96, 95% CI = 2.86, 8.61). Conclusions The higher urban incidence of uterine cancer, coupled with our previous findings of higher incidence of breast cancer and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer in urban areas in this region, may be suggestive of possible higher exposure to environmental estrogenic compounds, such as xenoestrogens, in urban areas. © 2009 RCOG BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.


Hirko K.A.,University of Michigan | Soliman A.S.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Hablas A.,Gharbiah Cancer Society | Seifeldin I.A.,Tanta Cancer Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2013

Background. This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in breast cancer incidence in Egypt from 1999 to 2008 and to make projections for breast cancer occurrence for the years 2009-2015. Patients and Methods. We utilized joinpoint regression and average annual percent change (AAPC) measures with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to describe the trends in breast cancer incidence rates from the Gharbiah Cancer Registry by age and stage at diagnosis and to estimate expected breast cancer caseloads for 2009-2015. Results. From 1999 to 2008, the AAPC in breast cancer incidence rates in Gharbiah significantly increased among women 50 years and older and among localized tumors (AAPC %, 95% CI, 3.1% to 8.0%). Our results predict a significant increase in breast cancer caseloads from 2009 to 2015 among women aged 30-39 (AAPC %, 95% CI, 0.9% to 1.1%) and among women aged 40-49 years (AAPC %, 95% CI, 1.0% to 2.6%). Conclusion. These results have important implications for allocating limited resources, managing treatment needs, and exploring the consequences of prior interventions and/or changing risk factors in Egypt and other developing countries at the same stages of demographic and health transitions. © 2013 Kelly A. Hirko et al.


Mousa S.M.,University of Michigan | Seifeldin I.A.,Tanta Cancer Center | Hablas A.,Gharbiah Cancer Society | Elbana E.S.,Tanta Cancer Center | Soliman A.S.,University of Michigan
Breast | Year: 2011

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Egyptian women, accounting for 37.6% of female tumors, and is often diagnosed at later stages. The objective of this study was to investigate breast cancer patient navigation through the health care system in the Nile Delta. Interviews were conducted with 163 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at the Tanta Cancer Center (TCC), the major cancer center of the region. Patients described their medical care pathway from the initial symptom experienced until their arrival at TCC. Patients whose initial contact was with a general surgeon (OR: 7.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 27.6), primary care provider (OR: 12.2, 95% CI: 2.9, 51.0), or gynecologist (OR: 8.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 53.4) were significantly more likely to experience a delay in reaching the TCC as compared to those visiting a surgical oncologist. Overcoming health care system and patient navigation barriers in developing countries may reduce the time for breast cancer patients to reach a cancer center for early management. © 2011.


Soliman A.S.,University of Michigan | Hung C.-W.,University of Michigan | Tsodikov A.,University of Michigan | Seifeldin I.A.,Tanta Cancer Center | And 6 more authors.
Hepatology International | Year: 2010

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide, including Egypt. In the recent past, HCC has become the second most prevalent cancer among men in Egypt. Since HCC has not been well studied in the rural population of Egypt, this case-control study was conducted to investigate the epidemiologic risk factors of HCC in the predominantly rural region of Gharbiah, Egypt. Methods: A total of 150 cases and 150 controls matched to cases on age (±5 years) and sex were recruited from the Gharbiah Cancer Society and Tanta Cancer Center. Exposure data were collected by an interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire about epidemiologic, occupational, medical and family history of HCC. Conditional logistic regression was utilized to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The effect modification of HCC risk between viral infection and environmental risk factors was also assessed. Results: Being an industrial worker was an independent risk for developing HCC (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.18, 10.63) after adjusting for viral infection, schistosomiasis and tobacco smoking. High relative risk of HCC was observed among HCV-infected individuals who were farmers (OR 9.60, 95% CI 3.72, 24.76), industrial workers (OR 12.90, 95% CI 4.33, 38.43) or active smokers (OR 5.95, 95% CI 2.20, 16.08). Conclusion: Occupational exposure may play an important role in the development of HCC. Farming, industrial exposures and cigarette smoking may increase the risk of HCC among HCV-seropositive individuals. Future research focusing on mechanisms of occupational exposures among HCV patients in this population is needed. © 2010 Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver.


PubMed | University of Nebraska Medical Center and Gharbiah Cancer Society
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer epidemiology | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to describe and quantify procedures and methods that maximized the efficiency of the Gharbiah Cancer Registry (GPCR), the only population-based cancer registry in Egypt. The procedures and measures included a locally-developed software program to translate names from Arabic to English, a new national ID number for demographic and occupational information, and linkage of cancer cases to new electronic mortality records of the Ministry of Health. Data was compiled from the 34,058 cases from the registry for the years 1999-2007. Cases and registry variables about demographic and clinical information were reviewed by year to assess trends associated with each new method or procedure during the study period. The introduction of the name translation software in conjunction with other demographic variables increased the identification of detected duplicates from 23.4% to 78.1%. Use of the national ID increased the proportion of cases with occupation information from 27% to 89%. Records with complete mortality information increased from 18% to 43%. Proportion of cases that came from death certificate only, decreased from 9.8% to 4.7%. Overall, the study revealed that introducing and utilizing local and culture-specific methodological changes, software, and electronic non-cancer databases had a significant impact on data quality and completeness. This study may have translational implications for improving the quality of cancer registries in LMICs considering the emerging advances in electronic databases and utilization of health software and computerization of data.


PubMed | University of Nebraska Medical Center, Cairo University and Gharbiah Cancer Society
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2017

Genetic predisposition increases the risk of familial breast cancer. Recent studies indicate that genetic predisposition for familial breast cancer can be ethnic-specific. However, current knowledge of genetic predisposition for the disease is predominantly derived from Western populations. Using this existing information as the sole reference to judge the predisposition in non-Western populations is not adequate and can potentially lead to misdiagnosis. Efforts are required to collect genetic predisposition from non-Western populations. The Egyptian population has high genetic variations in reflecting its divergent ethnic origins, and incident rate of familial breast cancer in Egypt is also higher than the rate in many other populations. Using whole exome sequencing, we investigated genetic predisposition in five Egyptian familial breast cancer families. No pathogenic variants in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other classical breast cancer-predisposition genes were present in these five families. Comparison of the genetic variants with those in Caucasian familial breast cancer showed that variants in the Egyptian families were more variable and heterogeneous than the variants in Caucasian families. Multiple damaging variants in genes of different functional categories were identified either in a single family or shared between families. Our study demonstrates that genetic predisposition in Egyptian breast cancer families may differ from those in other disease populations, and supports a comprehensive screening of local disease families to determine the genetic predisposition in Egyptian familial breast cancer.

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