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Akoto O.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Oppong-Otoo J.,Ghana Standards Authority | Osei-Fosu P.,Ghana Standards Authority
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Fourteen organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were analyzed in 10 brands of processed cereal-based complementary foods with the aim of assessing the health risk to infants and young children. The QuEChERS method was used for extraction and clean-up of pesticide residues. Subsequent detection and quantification were done using GC with ECD and PFPD. Levels of p,. p'-DDE, dieldrin, β-endosulfan, β-HCH, and γ-HCH detected in the processed cereal-based complementary food were higher than their respective MRL. The mean estimated daily intakes of OCPs in infants were significantly higher than that of young children. Exposure levels of heptachlor and dieldrin were higher than their respective ADI's. Their HIs recorded were greater than 1 indicating the possibility of adverse health effect on consumers. Hazard ratio for carcinogenic risk posed by β-HCH, dieldrin, heptachlor, γ-HCH and γ-chlordane were greater than 1. This result raises concerns of possible carcinogenicity for infants and young children. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Peran i Sala R.M.,European Commission | de Balabarca V.C.,Ministry of Health | Etoundi J.M.,Standards and Quality Agency ANOR | Odame-Darkwah J.,Food and Drugs Authority | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2015

In the context of the revision of the Codex Alimentarius Commission document "Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria CAC/GL 21/1997", and in the scope of an FAO/ WHO pilot project, seven examples on the application of microbiological criteria were developed to help illustrate the different contexts in which microbiological criteria might be used. This example describes a Good Hygiene Practice (GHP)-based microbiological criterion (MC), following the structure agreed by FAO/WHO. A GHP-based MC is a criterion used to monitor the production process of an establishment, to verify if it is functioning as expected and that GHPs are correctly implemented. For the development of this example, the authors chose raw meat preparations as the food commodity of interest, and Escherichia coli as an indicator of the effectiveness of GHPs during production. The sampling plan, including the values of M, m, n, and c, the analytical unit size, the analytical method, interpretation of results and corrective actions in case of non-conformance were based on empirical knowledge and on legislative rules in the countries of origin of the authors. This example is to illustrate the general approach which can be taken to establish such criteria and can be applied to other foods and for other microbiological contaminants. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Blankson G.K.,Ghana Standards Authority | Blankson G.K.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Mill-Robertson F.C.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
Food Control | Year: 2016

In the study, aflatoxin levels were assessed in thirty five (35) cereal-based food products intended for infants and young children. Additionally, the results showed that 71% of the processed foods intended for infants contained AFB1 (0.18 ± 0.01 to 36.10 ± 0.32 μgkg-1) levels higher than the European Union permissible limits of 0.1 μg kg-1. Aflatoxin intake was estimated using aflatoxin levels in the food products and the estimated individual consumption rates. The study also revealed mixed cereals as having the highest intake of aflatoxin B1 contaminants (0.005-0.852 μgkg-1bw d-1; 0.004-0.657 μgkg-1bwd-1) with mean estimated daily intake (EDI) of 0.23 ± 0.16 μgkg-1bwd-1 and 0.153 ± 0.13 μgkg-1bwd-1 for infants and young children respectively. The estimated AFT intake recorded for infants and young children for all the cereal-based food ranged from 0.005 to 1.054 μgkg-1bwd-1 and 0.004-0.838 μgkg-1bwd-1 respectively. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Adu-Acheampong R.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana | Jiggins J.,Wageningen University | Van Huis A.,Wageningen University | Cudjoe A.R.,Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana | And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science | Year: 2014

The government's cocoa spraying gangs in Ghana treat about two million hectares of the crop against black pod disease and mirids, the key insect pests of cocoa in West Africa, each August through to December, based on recommendations issued in the 1950s. A few cocoa farmers use additional pesticides. We studied the temporal distribution of two important mirid species, Distantiella theobroma (Dist.) and Sahlbergella singularis Hagl., in 1991, 1999, 2003 and 2012 to determine the appropriate timing for the application of control measures in current farming systems. There was a significant correlation between mirid abundance and pod availability on trees, as well as the number of basal shoots and the cocoa variety grown. Mirid populations peaked between January and April and from September to October. Surveys (interviews and focus group discussions involving over 300 farmers in 33 cocoa-growing districts) on pesticide use, sources of recommendations, and perceived successes and failures of current cocoa pest treatments suggested that the 1950 recommendations on the timing of insecticide application need revising. Copyright © ICIPE 2014.

Akoto O.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Bismark Eshun F.,Ghana Standards Authority | Darko G.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Adei E.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2014

Concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni, Fe and Zn were determined in the muscle samples of Sarotherodon melanotheron from the Fosu Lagoon in Cape Coast using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that, metal concentration in the fish muscle was in the order Mn > Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu > Cr. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in the fish exceeded the maximum tolerable limit set by the European Union. Although the mean concentrations of some metals exceeded this limit, their estimated daily intakes were below their oral reference dose recommended by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk assessment of consumers from the intake of metal contaminated in the muscle of S. melanotheron from the lagoon was evaluated by using Health Risk Index (HRI) calculations. In this study, the total HRI through consumption of fish calculated by adding the individual HRIs was less than 1, indicating that there is no significant potential health risk associated with the consumption of fish from the Fosu Lagoon.

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