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Adaku E.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Journal of Urban Planning and Development | Year: 2016

Although infrastructure is the backbone of every human settlement, development and accessibility of infrastructure in most developing countries are very low and poor as a result of fiscal challenges. This calls for rethinking infrastructure provision approaches to assuage the costs, particularly linear infrastructure, so as to ensure some match between infrastructure demand and supply in developing countries, given the fiscal challenges. This study seeks to relate one urban feature-street pattern-to linear infrastructure cost by modeling the capital costs of a water distribution system, electricity distribution system, and road network to four different residential neighborhood patterns with the same tract area of 1.1 km2 each. The study identifies the tributary pattern as being the most economical pattern in terms of linear infrastructure costs in comparison with the radial, grid, and hybrid patterns. Although the tributary pattern has the disadvantage of inaccessibility, it could be alleviated by fitting it with a carefully designed network of footpaths, which fits into most developing countries' means of transportation in residential areas (i.e., walking). © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Wiredu G.O.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Information Technology and People | Year: 2012

Purpose: This paper aims to take an institutional approach to the analysis of organisational-level challenges of information systems (IS) innovation in public organisations. It seeks to answer the question: how can the challenges of IS innovation in public organisations, presented by the interactions between IT and public bureaucracy, be explained and addressed? Design/methodology/approach: The paper is an empirical study approached with an interpretive philosophy that influenced the gathering of qualitative evidence. Findings: The analysis reveals the institutional tensions between the low-entrepreneurial ethos of public organisations and the efficiency principle of information technology (IT). Practical implications: Public bureaucracy should be adjusted by de-institutionalising its variable characteristics such as standardised and centralised employee roles and information. Information technology should be adjusted by restraining commitments to and expectations in public organisations. Originality/value: The paper argues that the primary principle of IS innovation should be institutional adjustments of public bureaucracy and information technology. It informs e-government policy makers to think primarily about the institutional relations between IT and public bureaucracy. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source


Sede P.I.,University of Benin | Ohemeng W.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Health Economics Review | Year: 2015

Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. © 2015, Sede and Ohemeng; licensee Springer. Source


Wiredu G.O.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

Public organisations are normally overwhelmed with socio-technical challenges of Information Systems (IS) innovation at both organisational and institutional levels. However, most studies of these challenges adopt an organisational perspective, leaving the institutional perspective largely unanalysed. In this paper, the IS innovation challenges faced by a British local authority are analysed to explain the institutional roles of public bureaucracy and information technology (IT). The analysis reveals the tensions between the low-entrepreneurial ethos of public organisations and the efficiency principle of IT. The paper argues that the primary principle of IS innovation should be institutional adjustments of public bureaucracy and information technology. Suggestions on how both institutions can be adjusted are provided. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Famiyeh S.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Journal of Sustainable Development | Year: 2014

Every Environmental Management System [EMS] requires implementing organizations to identify the environmental aspects of their activities, products or services and clearly show how the identification of aspects that may have significant impacts on the environment are identified. However, procedures for the identification of aspects that are significant are not clearly defined. This paper adapt and modify the process used to identify project risks as a framework to develop a generic framework that can be used by all manufacturing and service organizations to identify the environmental aspects of their activities as well as those that are significant. The proposed framework outlines four key steps in identifying impacts that are significant, viz. Environmental Aspects Identification; Environmental Risk Assessment; Environmental Risk Profiling; and Environmental Risk Threshold Values. The paper assesses the usability of the proposed framework by choosing one of the key activities in the mining sector as a test case. In this text case, the model identified dust as the most significant environmental impact in a typical hauling operation in a mine. © 2014 by the author(s). Source

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