Sede P.I.,University of Benin |
Ohemeng W.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Health Economics Review | Year: 2015
Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. © 2015, Sede and Ohemeng; licensee Springer.
Abdulai R.T.,Liverpool John Moores University |
Owusu-Ansah A.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Habitat International | Year: 2014
It is commonly argued that land information management via land registration guarantees landed property ownership security in the developing world. This has, therefore, triggered various studies into the relation between land registration and ownership security. The findings from these studies are divergent. Whilst some studies claim that it is land registration that guarantees ownership security, others have established no discernible link between registration and ownership security. This groundbreaking study contributes to the debate by investigating the nexus between land registration and ownership security from a new dimension. It focuses on the perspective of the State-sponsored court system on ownership security. Data from a High Court in one of the cities in Ghana covering a period of 10 years was extracted and analyzed. The evidence adduced shows that land registration per se is incapable of guaranteeing security as landed property ownership can be contested whether or not it is registered and owners of registered landed property can lose their ownership via civil litigation in the State-sponsored court system - cases are not automatically decided in favour of owners of registered landed property when disputes are brought before the courts for resolution. Thus, the argument that land registration guarantees ownership security is unsustainable - land registration is made to serve the wrong purpose. The paper, therefore, defines the right and critical role of land registration. It is concluded that land title or ownership insurance, albeit may appear to be expensive, is a tool that can potently address the problem of landed ownership insecurity. The findings provide useful lessons for international donor organisations like the World Bank and United Nations that are supporting land registration programmes as a panacea to the problem of ownership insecurity in the developing world. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Adaku E.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Journal of Urban Planning and Development | Year: 2016
Although infrastructure is the backbone of every human settlement, development and accessibility of infrastructure in most developing countries are very low and poor as a result of fiscal challenges. This calls for rethinking infrastructure provision approaches to assuage the costs, particularly linear infrastructure, so as to ensure some match between infrastructure demand and supply in developing countries, given the fiscal challenges. This study seeks to relate one urban feature-street pattern-to linear infrastructure cost by modeling the capital costs of a water distribution system, electricity distribution system, and road network to four different residential neighborhood patterns with the same tract area of 1.1 km2 each. The study identifies the tributary pattern as being the most economical pattern in terms of linear infrastructure costs in comparison with the radial, grid, and hybrid patterns. Although the tributary pattern has the disadvantage of inaccessibility, it could be alleviated by fitting it with a carefully designed network of footpaths, which fits into most developing countries' means of transportation in residential areas (i.e., walking). © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Osei-Frimpong K.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing | Year: 2016
Purpose: Considering the increasing conceptualization of value creation, this paper aims to empirically examine the influence of pre-encounter value needs of patients on the clinical encounter process and how this impacts on their perceived experiential value, and contributes to the patient’s role in value creation in healthcare service delivery. Design/methodology/approach: A model is proposed to suggest the antecedent and consequences of key elements of the patient–doctor encounter process. Following survey design approach, data collected from 332 outpatients from two clinics in Accra, Ghana, are examined through structural equation modeling using AMOS 23.0. Findings: The findings reveal that patient pre-encounter value needs significantly influence key elements of the patient–doctor encounter process (care delivery approach, level of trust and shared-decision making approach). This in turn affects patient’s perceived experiential value and satisfaction evaluation. The results also suggest that patient characteristics (e.g. educational background and frequency of visit) had no significant effect on the encounter process leading to perceived experiential value; however, patient’s age had significant influence on the encounter process. Research limitations/implications: This study empirically establishes a need to understand patient’s pre-encounter value needs, which fundamentally influence the patient-doctor encounter process and their perceived experiential value. However, the research only focused on the patient, which could limit the findings considering the multi-actors involved in the service delivery. Practical implications: Creating value with patients suggests a need for providers to understand patient value needs or goals and adopt an approach to engage in a holistic manner that would result in positive experiences. This would empower and increase confidence of patients in consultations. Originality/value: Using a quantitative research approach, this research engages in a highly focused investigation of the influence of patient’s pre-encounter value needs on key elements of the patient–doctor encounter process, which has received limited attention in the extant literature. The study also furthers our understanding of the effects of fundamental patient characteristics on encounter process and how this influence actor perceived experiential value. © 2016, © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Buor J.K.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Proceedings of the Operational Research Society Simulation Workshop 2016, SW 2016 | Year: 2016
This research employs system dynamics (SD) modelling to analyse the structural behaviour of the interactions between Disaster Preparedness, Environment Instability, and Resilience in maritime logistics industry in response to policy change. Despite the evidential rise in frequency, magnitude, and disruption potentials of catastrophic events in recent times, it appears that industry stakeholders are not able to anticipate the effects of long-term strategic risk management decisions. Field data and the dynamic models have revealed that there is a strong influence relationship (interdependencies) between Disaster Preparedness, Environment Instability, and Resilience in a logistics/supply chain network. We also found that policy interventions geared towards risk management have the potential to produce unintended consequences basically due to unacknowledged conditions. The research model provides strategic policy makers with real-time decision evaluation tool that can enhance justification for acceptance or rejection of a complex risk management intervention prior to decision implementation.
Famiyeh S.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Journal of Sustainable Development | Year: 2014
Every Environmental Management System [EMS] requires implementing organizations to identify the environmental aspects of their activities, products or services and clearly show how the identification of aspects that may have significant impacts on the environment are identified. However, procedures for the identification of aspects that are significant are not clearly defined. This paper adapt and modify the process used to identify project risks as a framework to develop a generic framework that can be used by all manufacturing and service organizations to identify the environmental aspects of their activities as well as those that are significant. The proposed framework outlines four key steps in identifying impacts that are significant, viz. Environmental Aspects Identification; Environmental Risk Assessment; Environmental Risk Profiling; and Environmental Risk Threshold Values. The paper assesses the usability of the proposed framework by choosing one of the key activities in the mining sector as a test case. In this text case, the model identified dust as the most significant environmental impact in a typical hauling operation in a mine. © 2014 by the author(s).
Wiredu G.O.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Information Technology and People | Year: 2012
Purpose: This paper aims to take an institutional approach to the analysis of organisational-level challenges of information systems (IS) innovation in public organisations. It seeks to answer the question: how can the challenges of IS innovation in public organisations, presented by the interactions between IT and public bureaucracy, be explained and addressed? Design/methodology/approach: The paper is an empirical study approached with an interpretive philosophy that influenced the gathering of qualitative evidence. Findings: The analysis reveals the institutional tensions between the low-entrepreneurial ethos of public organisations and the efficiency principle of information technology (IT). Practical implications: Public bureaucracy should be adjusted by de-institutionalising its variable characteristics such as standardised and centralised employee roles and information. Information technology should be adjusted by restraining commitments to and expectations in public organisations. Originality/value: The paper argues that the primary principle of IS innovation should be institutional adjustments of public bureaucracy and information technology. It informs e-government policy makers to think primarily about the institutional relations between IT and public bureaucracy. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Wiredu G.O.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Information Systems Journal | Year: 2011
One of the dominant characteristics of contemporary software development is the global distribution of tasks, of developers, of information and of technologies. Undoubtedly, such distribution engenders new coordination challenges in the form of distance-related interdependencies. One of the predominant processes of addressing these challenges is electronic meetings (or teleconferences). However, the functions of these meetings for coordination purposes are not yet understood. The distinctive conventions of teleconferences and their causal relationships that lead to optimal coordination of global software development (GSD) projects are also not yet understood. In this paper, the functions of teleconferences held by globally distributed software developers to coordinate their work in the face of global distribution of resources, cross-site information interdependencies and continuously changing software requirements are analysed. The analysis is based on a qualitative study of how a subunit of 13 software developers, distributed across three sites in the USA and one in Republic of Ireland, used teleconferences to address its coordination challenges. The paper proffers a teleconference approach to GSD coordination by arguing that the functions of teleconferences manifest in software developers' multitasking; their ready access to all their information as additional benefits; flexibility in their communicative behaviours; and a reduction in their structure overload. This approach draws attention to these manifestations as distinctive conventions of the de-structured meeting, which de-structuring is occasioned by organic information processing needs in teleconferencing. This approach also explains why the combination of global distribution and teleconferences is a strategic opportunity for information processing for software process coordination. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wiredu G.O.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010
Public organisations are normally overwhelmed with socio-technical challenges of Information Systems (IS) innovation at both organisational and institutional levels. However, most studies of these challenges adopt an organisational perspective, leaving the institutional perspective largely unanalysed. In this paper, the IS innovation challenges faced by a British local authority are analysed to explain the institutional roles of public bureaucracy and information technology (IT). The analysis reveals the tensions between the low-entrepreneurial ethos of public organisations and the efficiency principle of IT. The paper argues that the primary principle of IS innovation should be institutional adjustments of public bureaucracy and information technology. Suggestions on how both institutions can be adjusted are provided. © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Adjei J.K.,Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration
Proceedings - 2nd IEEE International Conference on Mobile Cloud Computing, Services, and Engineering, MobileCloud 2014 | Year: 2014
Effective digital identity management system is a critical enabler of cloud computing, since it supports the provision of the required assurances to the transacting parties. Such assurances sometimes require the disclosure of sensitive personal information. Given the prevalence of various forms of identity abuses on the Internet, a re-examination of the factors underlying cloud services acquisition has become critical and imperative. In order to provide better assurances, parties to cloud transactions must have confidence in service providers' ability and integrity in protecting their interest and personal information. Thus a trusted cloud identity ecosystem could promote such user confidence and assurances. Using a qualitative research approach, this paper explains the role of trust in cloud service acquisition by organizations. The paper focuses on the processes of acquisition of cloud services by financial institutions in Ghana. The study forms part of comprehensive study on the monetization of personal Identity information. © 2014 IEEE.