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Robinson E.J.Z.,Gothenburg University | Robinson E.J.Z.,University of Dar es Salaam | Robinson E.J.Z.,Ghana Food Research Institute | Lokina R.B.,University of Dar es Salaam
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2012

Where joint forest management has been introduced into Tanzania, 'volunteer' patrollers take responsibility for enforcing restrictions over the harvesting of forest resources, often receiving as an incentive a share of the collected fine revenue. Using an optimal enforcement model, we explore how that share, and whether villagers have alternative sources of forest products, determines the effort patrollers put into enforcement and whether they choose to take a bribe rather than honestly reporting the illegal collection of forest resources. Without funds for paying and monitoring patrollers, policy makers face tradeoffs over illegal extraction, forest protection and revenue generation through fine collection. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Katic P.G.,International Water Management Institute | Namara R.E.,International Water Management Institute | Hope L.,International Water Management Institute | Owusu E.,Ghana Food Research Institute | Fujii H.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science 1 1
Water Resources and Economics | Year: 2013

West Africa's rice imports currently satisfy 70% of the soaring local demand, worsening the food vulnerability of an increasingly urbanized population. Despite considerable rice-growing potential, lack of water control systems, access to improved seeds, agrochemicals and appropriate mechanization have resulted in modest production growth rates, unable to alter the region's dependency on imported rice. Governments aim to boost production with import duties and input subsidies. However, questions remain as to whether these policies enable the rice sector to respond to changing consumers preferences for high grade rice and to contribute to national economic growth. We present the results from a Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) on rice production in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Niger and under three water management systems: irrigation (public scheme), supplemented rain-fed (rainfall aided by autonomously-sourced water supplies) and purely rain-fed. Our results show that policy interventions in these West African countries (i.e., input subsidies and import taxes) did not significantly enhance the profitability of rice production to farmers due to the effect of market failures (limited capital access and non-competitive market for rice) and the low quality of local milled rice. The PAM results point strongly to the importance of improving rice quality and yields through more efficient water management and post-harvest handling/processing and targeted breeding to match consumers' preferences. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lambrecht I.,Ghana Food Research Institute | Vanlauwe B.,IITA | Maertens M.,Catholic University of Leuven
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2016

Many paradigms on sustainable agricultural intensification promote a combination of different agricultural technologies. Whether such a paradigm survives in practice depends on how farmers combine these technologies on their fields. We focus on integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) and investigate how the concept is put into practice in South-Kivu, Eastern DR Congo. ISFM includes the use of improved germplasm, organic inputs and mineral fertilizer, and emphasizes the complementarities and synergies that arise when technologies are jointly applied. We investigate whether different ISFM components are applied jointly, sequentially or independently, and whether that matters for the long-term use of the technology. We use original survey data from 420 farms, and combine a descriptive statistical analysis and a factor analysis. We find that few farmers in the area have reached ‘full ISFM’, and technology application occurs sequentially rather than simultaneously. Two technology subsets can be distinguished: more resource-intensive and less resource-intensive technologies. These subsets behave as supplements rather than as complements, and adoption within and among each subset is more sequential than simultaneous. Our results imply that there is a disconnect between the theoretical arguments in the agronomic ISFM literature, and the actual patterns of ISFM application on farmers’ fields. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Namara R.E.,The World Bank | Hope L.,International Water Management Institute IWMI | Sarpong E.O.,Ghana Food Research Institute | De Fraiture C.,UNESCO IHE | Owusu D.,P.O. Box CT 2889
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2014

Irrigation is a priority development agenda item in Ghana and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a genuine endeavor to increase public and large-scale private investment in the sector. The on-going smallholder-driven private irrigation development that is largely based on water lifting technologies is not yet fully appreciated. We propose that smallholders themselves can play a significant role in achieving national irrigation development plans, provided they have access to water lifting technologies, especially small motorized pumps. We analyze adoption patterns and constraints pertaining to water lifting technologies in Ghana and suggest interventions that would enhance wider dissemination. Currently, these technologies are largely accessible only to better-off farmers. The primary factors inhibiting wider application are poorly developed supply chains, lack of access to finance, high operational and maintenance costs, high output price risks, and lack of institutional support. To realize the potential of water lifting technologies, improvements are required in the entire value chain of lift irrigation systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Aidoo H.,Cocoa Processing Company | Sakyi-Dawson E.,University of Ghana | Abbey L.,Ghana Food Research Institute | Tano-Debrah K.,University of Ghana | Saalia F.K.,University of Ghana
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: The rheological properties of chocolate, based upon its acceptability by consumers, are determined largely by the ingredients and their proportions used in the formulations. Milk chocolates are very popular because milk provides flavour and smooth texture to the product. This study aimed to determine the optimal ingredient formulation for vegetable milk chocolate using peanut-cowpea milk as a substitute for dairy milk. The study followed a four-component constrained mixture design, with cocoa liquor, vegetable milk, cocoa butter and sugar as the components. Lecithin and vanillin were added at a constant amount to all formulations. Critical attributes of the chocolates were evaluated using descriptive sensory tests and instrumental techniques. RESULTS: Regression models were fitted to the data, and the optimum ingredient formulation for acceptable vegetable milk chocolate was determined. The vegetable milk had significant (P = 0.05) influence on flavour, mouth feel, hardness and after taste of chocolates. CONCLUSIONS: The optimum ingredient formulation for acceptable vegetable milk chocolates was determined to be cocoa liquor (18.00%), sugar (30.75%), peanut-cowpea milk (28.93%), and cocoa butter (22.32%). The results demonstrate that it is feasible to use vegetable source milk for chocolate. The findings also provide clues for scale-up criteria for large-scale production of vegetable milk chocolate. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

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