Ghana Atomic Energy Commission
Accra, Ghana

The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission is the state organization in Ghana involved with surveillance of the use of nuclear energy in Ghana, it is similar in aim to the Ghana Nuclear Society , with the difference being that the GNS is a nonprofit organisation, whereas the GAEC is part of the parliament of Ghana. Its primary objectives were set out by the parliament act 588, which involve investigating the use of nuclear energy for Ghana and supporting research and development both in Ghana and abroad. Wikipedia.

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Essandoh J.,University Of Cape Coast | Yawson A.E.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Yawson A.E.,University Of Cape Coast
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: With high DDT resistance present throughout much of West Africa, carbamates and organophosphates are increasingly important alternatives to pyrethroids for indoor residual spraying (IRS). Though less widespread, resistance to both of these alternative insecticide classes has also been documented within the Anopheles gambiae species pair (formerly the M and S molecular forms) in West Africa. To manage insecticide efficacy, it is important to predict how and where resistance is likely to occur and spread, which could be aided by using molecular diagnostics with high predictive value. Methods. Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. were collected from 18 sites throughout southern Ghana and bioassayed with bendiocarb, the most commonly applied carbamate, and an organophosphate, fenitrothion. The Ace-1 target site substitution G119S was genotyped by qPCR. Results: Fenitrothion induced higher mortality than bendiocarb, though phenotypes correlated strongly across populations. Ace-1 119S was found at much higher frequency in An. gambiae s.s than An. coluzzii, exceeding 90% in a population from Greater Accra, the highest frequency reported to date. Ace-1 G119S was very strongly associated with resistance to both insecticides, providing high predictive power for diagnosis, though with some evidence for a differential effect between molecular forms for bendiocarb. Sequencing of the gene revealed a lack of variation in resistant alleles precluding determination of origin, but Ace-1 copy number variation was detected for the first time in Ghana. Conclusions: The results validate G119S as a useful diagnostic of organophosphate and carbamate resistance within and among populations, whilst highlighting the potential for an aggregate nature of Ace-1 genotypes, which may comprise both single-copy and duplicated genes. Further work is now required to determine the distribution and resistance-association of Ace-1 duplication. © 2013 Essandoh et al.; licensee Bio Med Central Ltd.

Asase A.,University of Ghana | Akwetey G.A.,University of Ghana | Achel D.G.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010

Aim of study: Malaria is one of the most important diseases in the world. Because of the devastating nature of the disease there is an urgent need to develop new drugs or vaccines for the treatment, prevention and management of the disease. The objective of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of malaria in the Dangme West District of Ghana. Methods: Data was collected from 67 indigenous households in ten communities in the district using a validated questionnaire. Results: In total, 30 species of plants belonging to 28 genera in 20 families were reported to be used in the preparation of the herbal remedies. Mature leaves were the most (55%) common plant part used and 73.3% of the herbal remedies involved a single plant. Most of the herbal remedies were prepared by boiling and administered orally. The majority (47%) of the species of plants used were collected from their compounds or home gardens. Conclusions: Knowledge about malaria and treatment practices exists in the study area. Herbal remedies were commonly used by people for the treatment of malaria because they were cost-effective. They are also more accessible. Many of the species of plants used have been documented for the treatment of malaria as well as investigated for their phytochemical and antimalarial and/or antiplasmodial activity confirming the results of previous studies as well as rationalization of their traditional use. Five species of plants used in the study area, namely, Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C. Wendl. (Poaceae), Deinbollia pinnata Schum &Thonn. (Sapindaceae), Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae), Greenwayodendron sp. (Annonaceae) and Solanum torvum Sw (Solanaceae), are documented for the first time for their use in the treatment of malaria. " The result of this study provides the basis for further pharmacological studies on the herbal remedies used" © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Buah-Kwofie A.,University of Witwatersrand | Buah-Kwofie A.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Humphries M.S.,University of Witwatersrand
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2017

The iSimangaliso Wetland Park World Heritage site, located on the east coast of South Africa, spans ∼3300 km2 and constitutes the largest protected estuarine environment for hippopotami, crocodiles and aquatic birds in Africa. Given the ecological importance of this site and continued use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the region, this study focused on the nature, distribution and potential sources of organochlorine contamination within iSimangaliso Wetland Park. OCPs were widely distributed in surface sediment samples obtained from the four main Ramsar wetland systems within the park (Lake St Lucia, Mkhuze, Lake Sibaya and Kosi Bay). ∑HCH and ∑DDT were the dominant contaminants detected with concentrations in the range of 26.29–282.5 ng/g and 34.49–262.4 ng/g, respectively. ∑DDT concentrations revealed a distinctive gradient, with significantly higher concentrations at Kosi Bay and Lake Sibaya attributed to the application of DDT for malaria control. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the dominant isomers detected, but the detection of p,p'-DDT in a number of samples reflects recent inputs of technical DDT. Highest concentrations of HCH, endosulfan and heptachlor were detected in sediments from Mkhuze and reflect the substantial residue load these wetlands receive from agricultural activities within the catchment area. Isomeric compositions indicate that endosulfan and heptachlor residues are derived mainly from historical application, while inputs of HCH, aldrin and endrin could be attributed to more recent usage at several sites. OCP sediment concentrations from iSimangaliso represent the highest yet recorded in South Africa and some of the highest reported globally this century. Sediments found within the lakes and wetlands of iSimangaliso represent large reservoirs of contaminants that pose ecotoxicological threats to this globally important biodiversity hotspot. Detailed investigation into the bioaccumulation and toxicological risks of OCPs within the wetland park is urgently required. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Lynd A.,Vector Group | Weetman D.,Vector Group | Barbosa S.,Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology Group | Egyir Yawson A.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Alleles subject to strong, recent positive selection will be swept toward fixation together with contiguous sections of the genome. Whether the genomic signatures of such selection will be readily detectable in outbred wild populations is unclear. In this study, we employ haplotype diversity analysis to examine evidence for selective sweeps around knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations associated with resistance to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and pyrethroid insecticides in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Both kdr mutations have significantly lower haplotype diversity than the wild-type (nonresistant) allele, with kdr L1014F showing the most pronounced footprint of selection. We complement these data with a time series of collections showing that the L1014F allele has increased in frequency from 0.05 to 0.54 in 5 years, consistent with a maximum likelihood-fitted selection coefficient of 0.16 and a dominance coefficient of 0.25. Our data show that strong, recent positive selective events, such as those caused by insecticide resistance, can be identified in wild insect populations. © 2010 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved.

Bhuiyan M.A.H.,Okayama University | Bhuiyan M.A.H.,Jahangirnagar University | Parvez L.,Jahangirnagar University | Islam M.A.,Atomic Energy Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils of mine drainage and surrounding agricultural fields in the northern part of Bangladesh were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. The average concentrations of Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Rb, Sr, Nb and Zr exceeded the world normal averages and, in some cases, Mn, Zn, As and Pb exceeded the toxic limit of the respective metals. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI). The soils show significant enrichment with Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Sr and Nb, indicating inputs from mining activities. The Igeo values have revealed that Mn (1.24 ± 0.38), Zn (1.49 ± 0.58) and Pb (1.63 ± 0.38) are significantly accumulated in the study area. The PLIs derived from contamination factors indicate that the distal part of the coal mine-affected area is the most polluted (PLI of 4.02). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that Mn, Zn, Pb and Ti are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly coal mining activities, and the extreme proximal and distal parts are heavily contaminated with maximum heavy metals. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yamoah S.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Akaho E.H.K.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Nyarko B.J.B.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2013

The understanding of the time-dependent behaviour of the neutron population in a nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions is of great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In this study, an accurate analytical solution of point reactor kinetics equations with multi-group of delayed neutrons for specified reactivity changes is proposed to calculate the change in neutron density. The method is based on formulating a coefficient matrix of the homogenous differential equations of the point reactor kinetics equations and calculating the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix. A small time interval is chosen within which reactivity relatively stays constant. The analytical method was applied to solve the point reactor kinetics equations with six-groups delayed neutrons for a representative thermal reactor. The problems of step, ramp and temperature feedback reactivities are computed and the results compared with other traditional methods. The comparison shows that the method presented in this study is accurate and efficient for solving the point reactor kinetics equations of multi-group of delayed neutrons. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kuranchie-Mensah H.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Atiemo S.M.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Palm L.M.N.D.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Blankson-Arthur S.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2012

The distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the aquatic ecosystem from the Densu river revealed varying levels of concentration in water and the sediment samples. Three locations were sampled along the river to evaluate the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in the river. Sediment and surface water samples were extracted by soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively and analyzed using Gas Chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detectable organochlorine pesticides were gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), delta-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin. The other pesticides that were investigated are gamma-chlordane, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE, methoxychlor, endrin and its metabolite endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone. The order of increasing frequency of detection of samples was higher in sediment than water. In sediment, the mean concentration ranged from 0.030μgkg -1 dry weight (endrin) to 10.98μgkg -1 dry weight (aldrin). The highest detected concentration of organochlorine in water was endosulfan sulfate with mean concentration of 0.185μgL -1. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for most organochlorine pesticide residue in the sediment sampled from the various locations. Some of the levels of organochlorine pesticides detected in water were relatively high compared to guideline values set by World Health Organization and Australia and thus could be harmful if the trend is not checked. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Bempah C.K.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission | Donkor A.K.,University of Ghana
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

A number of pesticide residues in fruits were monitored at five markets in the Accra Metropolis for almost a year. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apple were purchased from these selected markets in the metropolis and analyzed for pesticide residues by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. In all, 320 sampled fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p′-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p′-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p′- DDT, endrin ketone, and methoxychlor). The data revealed that 32.8% of the fruit samples analyzed contained residues of the monitored insecticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) whereas 48.7% were below the MRL. Nonetheless, the continuous consumption of such fruits with modest pesticide levels can accumulate and could result in deadly chronic effects. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Ade N.,University of Witwatersrand | Nam T.L.,University of Witwatersrand | Assiamah M.,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2012

Although diamond has been studied for dosimetry principally due to its near-tissue equivalence, its use in both low-energy X-rays and high-energy electron beams has not been reported. This report is based on dosimetric studies of a synthetic diamond probe when subjected to diagnostic mammography X-ray photons and megavoltage electron therapy beams. The probe, constructed using entirely tissue-equivalent Perspex body, was configured for radiation dose measurement in either 'edge-on' or 'flat-on' exposure geometry without having first to re-orient the diamond within the body of the detector, and it was designed to be compatible with commercial electrometer systems. The radiation response of the diamond tested showed negligible energy dependence; its minimal background signal, high sensitivity (547.52nCGy -1mm -3) and suitability for measurements in small radiation fields of steep dose gradients due to its small size make it suitable for clinical dosimetry. The presented probe has the potential advantage of replacing conventional radiation dosimeters. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

News Article | January 5, 2016

Julian Bennett, ANUC's space science director, and a team member inspect the newly installed climate-measuring instrument from NASA. Image: Iain Sutherland Plantain sellers, fruit vendors and market stalls line the road as taxis and local tro tro buses dart through the busy high street. The lively centre of Koforidua, hemmed in by lush green mountains, appears to be the typical Ghanaian city. A short drive outside town, atop the roof of the All Nations University College (ANUC), history is in the making. Members of Ghana’s first university space science laboratory, joined by a NASA engineer, are busily installing meteorological instruments. The installation will provide the university with detailed climate readings from Koforidua and its surroundings and feed back to NASA’s global climate database in the US. The project is the latest achievement for the university which, along with the government and a string of other academic institutions, is helping spearhead Ghana’s fledgling space science industry. While often met with scepticism and criticism about spending, the quest to create space science programs in Ghana and across Africa is taking off. Those involved believe the benefits can be felt across society, with space satellites helping transform everything from agriculture practices to quashing illegal mining, while promoting space education could help encourage Ghana’s new generation of engineers and academics. "[Space science] can benefit Ghana as a whole,” said Julian Bennett, the university’s space science director. “It is an opportunity for us in Ghana, but it is not easy doing these things from here without the facilities available.” ANUC students work with their CanSat ahead of its 2013 launch. Image: AP/Christian Thompson ANUC took its first tentative steps into space science in 2013 by launching a CanSat, a basic can-sized device fitted with antennas and a camera that hovers above ground tethered to a helium balloon and sends images back to ground. The university has since opened an amateur ground station to study satellites in orbit, made contact with the international space station, installed UHF and VHF antennas, and has plans to launch a CubeSat by 2018, Bennett explained. “People have this view that space science means launching a rocket or observing faraway galaxies, but in reality a lot of it is actually relating to earth and observations,” NASA instrument engineer Jon Rodriguez added. Nestled on the top floor in between university classrooms and engineering laboratories, the epicentre of ANUC’s space initiative is a small, unassuming room. Multiple monitors on one side make up its ground station while a prototype of its CubeSat and a white board of ideas draw your attention at the other. "I remember the very first day we heard a voice," said Bennett. "We were here one evening just tracking satellites… and we turned it on and we could hear a voice. [It's] not very common in our region to hear a live voice signal. We were very excited and jumping around the place." This excitement for space science was spurred by Ghana’s government, which in 2011 launched the Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI). It follows in the path of several other African nations in promoting space science and looking to the final frontier to help address on-the-ground issues and local problems. A campus building at ANUC in Koforidua which houses the university's space science initiatives. Image: Iain Sutherland Approaching the gates of Ghana’s Atomic Energy Commission in Accra, where two guards stand in front, I enter and pass down the long driveway and a cluster of concrete buildings hidden from the roadside come into view. Individuals in white coats and suits walk around the well-kept lawns as staff from the GSSTI drive me around the complex. Here, development work for the government program is underway, but is kept under wraps during my visit. GSSTI's conversion of a 32-metre satellite antenna into a telescope as part of its radio astronomy project is off limits, although GSSTI said it should be completed in June. In addition to unveiling a telescope and astronomy centre in collaboration with the South African government, GSSTI has designs to send its first satellite to space by 2020. The government allocated GHC$38.5 million (US$10 million) to nuclear and space science technology in 2015 as it aims to further space education and benefit from its own satellite imagery. A short drive outside the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission is the University of Ghana’s graduate school where many GSSTI staff are based, including Eric Aggrey, a project manager at the institute. “[People] always see space science as just sending man to the Moon,” he explained. “I am very much keen about human development... most of the time our teaching ends on the blackboard and now we can have people practising their skills. [That] will help us a lot." A recently installed antenna at the space science department at the All Nations University College (ANUC) in Korofidua, Ghana. Image: Iain Sutherland The government has 20 staff at its institute, while the nearby University of Ghana has started courses in astronomy, as does the Kwame Nkrumah University in Kumasi. ANUC’s initiative currently employs six people, and the school has aspirations to start academic courses in astronomy and space science. Outreach programs on space education are also happening at primary schools across the country. But the value of the nascent Ghanaian space program isn't just for education. At present, the nation is reliant on satellite images from foreign companies, but by having its own independent satellites, Aggrey and others believe significant benefits can be felt across society. “God willing, we will also go into launching our own satellite. In the next couple of years we are going to be able to clearly define our needs and design a satellite to fill our needs,” Aggrey said. "If we have our own or a regional satellite then we will have a common agenda if it is for agriculture, environmental degradation, storms... then we can use them to address local problems," said Godfred Frempong, chief scientist at the country’s Science and Technology Policy Research Institute (STEPRI). “[In] Ghana, for example, illegal mining is destroying our environment," Frempong continued. "So if we have a satellite [in orbit] we can use it to pinpoint where activity is going on. That would perhaps not be activity of interest to the US, but it is of interest to us.” Illegal gold mining is a major problem for the West African nation, with hundreds of artisanal mines operating across the country. Although there is a dedicated government taskforce, the prospect of having a tailored satellite to monitor the landscape may prove a significant tool in the fight. The GSSTI’s Aggrey says satellite imaging and climate data could also help better manage natural disasters. He believes it could help prevent tragedies like that which occurred in June this year, when at least 25 people were killed in floods across the capital Accra. Climatological data can also make an impact in agriculture, and the University of Natural Resources and Energy in Ghana’s central region is another institution looking to “tap into” space and offer solutions to the country’s many farmers. The university started its space science initiative in 2012, and has set up a ground station to collect meteorological and weather information. It's scheduled to launch its inaugural satellite in September 2016. “[The satellite] will be for improving weather [forecasting]," explained Amos Kabo-Bah, acting head of UENR's Earth Observation Innovation Centre. "In Africa [forecasting is] a key problem because data sources are not very good. We will be contributing towards the improvement of weather prediction and supporting the farmers and agriculture.” With almost half of the population employed in agriculture, improving climatological data to better serve the country’s farmers could have wide-reaching benefits. “You can show where we have water and not, the type of crops, where certain crops grow well and it can even detect pollution in the rivers,” GSSTI’s Aggrey added. “We can design a satellite specifically for Ghana.” The ground station at the University of Energy and Natural Resources (UENR) in Sunyani, Ghana. Image courtesy UENR The centre, funded through central grants at a cost of GHC$1.5 million (US$390,000), has partnered with the government’s forestry, disaster management and fire services to harness satellite data. “We have intentions of developing the data we receive into what we call wildfire indices,” Kabo-Bah said. “We want to be able to tell in West Africa how wildfires occur and we should be able to predict them and send them to all agencies via mobiles who need the information” Still, one of the biggest challenges for Ghana's space industry remains addressing criticism that it's irresponsible to spend government funds on space initiatives in a country where even amid great urban development, poverty still affects 20 percent of the population, a nationwide electricity crisis continues, and corruption is rampant. “One of the biggest challenges is getting the average Ghanaian excited about what we are doing,” Bennett explained. “We are coming from a side of the world where it is a challenge getting money to buy food and clothes," Bennett added. "So why should we spend so much money which could have been used to feed so many people just to build a satellites to taking pictures. I don’t think the benefits have sunk in yet.” Nearby Nigeria is already benefiting from its own satellites. Its Space Research and Development Agency launched the NigeriaSat-1 in 2003 and now operates several satellites, with imaging data used to monitor oil activity in the Niger Delta, among other focuses. And others on the continent are following suit. Ethiopia unveiled a US$3 million space observatory in June, Kenya launched a space program in 2012, and Angola is in the process of building a satellite in partnership with a Russian consortium. It remains to be seen how far Ghana’s fledgling space science industry will go, but the prospects look bright as its set of space pioneers continue to develop the country’s unlikely forays into space science. “It is not that we can compete with NASA, but we will build the infrastructure to tap into the knowledge we have here in Ghana,” STEPRI director Frempong concluded. “The frontier of science is unlimited.”

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