Van Den Schoor F.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Middha P.,GexCon AS |
Van Den Bulck E.,Catholic University of Leuven
Fire Safety Journal
A risk analysis is presented for an enclosed 30×30 m car park in which LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) vehicles are allowed to park. An event tree analysis is used to define 26 different incident scenarios and their probabilities. FLACS, a specialised CFD program, is used to calculate the formation of a flammable vapour cloud and its dilution by means of the ventilation system as well as the overpressures generated in a vapour cloud explosion. Existing empirical methods are used to calculate the overpressures generated by a BLEVE and the heat radiated by a fire ball and a jet fire. The simulations have shown that a release from a 70 l LPG fuel tank can lead to vapour clouds of up to 200 m3 that fill the entire height of the car park, while the explosion simulations have shown that such vapour clouds can lead to overpressures above 30 kPa in the entire car park. The ventilation simulations have shown that high flow rates of approximately 0.060 m 3/s per m2 of car park floor area are necessary to rapidly dilute these large vapour clouds. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Price D.,GexCon AS
Many European cement kilns are now co-processing alternative fuels for coal substitution to reduce their carbon emissions and to reduce operational fuel costs. Typically, the risks from gas explosions gets much more interest than dust explosions. Both DSEAR (UK) and ATEX (EU) requires the employer to identify areas which are hazardous due to the presence of an explosive atmosphere and to take measures to entirely remove or reduce the extent of these areas. Reducing an explosive atmosphere is given top priority over other risk reduction measures such as reducing potential ignition sources or reducing the consequences of an event. The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR) relates to explosive gas and dust atmospheres and compliance with DSEAR is a legal requirement in the UK. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: FoF-09-2015 | Award Amount: 11.42M | Year: 2015
Fortissimo 2 will drive the uptake of advanced modelling, simulation and data analytics by European engineering and manufacturing SMEs and mid-caps. Such an uptake will deliver improved design processes, better products and services, and improved competitiveness. For the European Union as a whole this means improved employment opportunities and economic growth. The importance of advanced ICT to the competitiveness of both large and small companies in the engineering and manufacturing domain is well established. Despite early successes in this area, there are still many barriers to the uptake of such solutions, not least of which are the initial cost and complexity of adoption, particularly in the context of challenging trading conditions. This proposal targets the ICT Innovation for Manufacturing SMEs (I4MS) action line (Phase 2) and builds on Phase 1 of that initiative. Phase 2 addresses the adoption of next generation ICT advances in the manufacturing domain. At the core of Fortissimo 2 are three tranches of Application Experiments (~35 in total). An initial set is included in this proposal and two further sets will be obtained through Open Calls for proposals. These experiments will be driven by the requirements of first-time users (predominately SMEs) and will bring together actors from across the value chain, from cycle providers to domain experts via the Fortissimo Marketplace. This will enable innovative solutions to manufacturing challenges, leading to new and improved design processes, products and services. A key feature of Fortissimo 2 will be the adaption of the Marketplace to meet the needs of end-users. It will offer a responsive and reliable service to companies which want to access HPC and Big resources and expertise. Fortissimo 2 initially involves 732 months of effort, a total cost of 11.1m and EC funding of 10m over a duration of three years, commensurate with achieving its ambitious goals.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-RIA | Phase: FCH-04.3-2014 | Award Amount: 1.51M | Year: 2015
The aim of the HySEA project is to conduct pre-normative research on vented deflagrations in enclosures and containers for hydrogen energy applications. The ambition is to facilitate the safe and successful introduction of hydrogen energy systems by introducing harmonized standard vent sizing requirements. The partners in the HySEA consortium have extensive experience from experimental and numerical investigations of hydrogen explosions. The experimental program features full-scale vented deflagration experiments in standard ISO containers, and includes the effect of obstacles simulating levels of congestion representative of industrial systems. The project also entails the development of a hierarchy of predictive models, ranging from empirical engineering models to sophisticated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element (FE) tools. The specific objectives of HySEA are: - To generate experimental data of high quality for vented deflagrations in real-life enclosures and containers with congestion levels representative of industrial practice; - To characterize different strategies for explosion venting, including hinged doors, natural vent openings, and commercial vent panels; - To invite the larger scientific and industrial safety community to submit blind-predictions for the reduced explosion pressure in selected well-defined explosion scenarios; - To develop, verify and validate engineering models and CFD-based tools for reliable predictions of pressure loads in vented explosions; - To develop and validate predictive tools for overpressure (P) and impulse (I), and produce P-I diagrams for typical structures with relevance for hydrogen energy applications; - To use validated CFD codes to explore explosion hazards and mitigating measures in larger enclosures, such as warehouses; and - To formulate recommendations for improvements to European (EN-14994), American (NFPA 68), and other relevant standards for vented explosions.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.5.2.2 | Award Amount: 2.73M | Year: 2009
This project addresses the fundamentally important and urgent issue regarding the accurate predictions of fluid phase, discharge rate, emergency isolation and subsequent atmospheric dispersion during accidental releases from pressurised CO2 pipelines to be employed as an integral part of large scale Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) chain. This information is pivotal to quantifying all the hazard consequences associated with CO2 pipeline failure forming the basis for emergency response planning and determining minimum safe distances to populated areas. The development of state of the art multiphase heterogeneous discharge and dispersion models for predicting the correct fluid phase during the discharge process will be of particular importance given the very different hazard profiles of CO2 in the gas and solid states. Model validations will be based on both small scale controlled laboratory conditions as well as large scale field trials using a unique CCS facility in China. A cost/benefit analysis will be performed to determine the optimum level of impurities in the captured CO2 stream based on safety and economic considerations. The work proposed, carried out over a period of 36 months will embody the understanding gained within safety and risk assessment tools that can be used for evaluating the adequacy of controls in CO2 pipelines, with best practice guidelines also being developed. The proposal addresses the main themes of the Collaborative Call in that it has a predominant research component and its successful outcome would allow the safe and commercial deployment of large scale near zero emission power generation technology based on CCS. The project also enjoys strategic leadership from members the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum and highly relevant collaboration with the worlds second largest and fastest producer of CO2, China.