Gettysburg, PA, United States
Gettysburg, PA, United States

Gettysburg College is a private, four-year liberal arts college founded in 1832, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, United States, adjacent to the famous battlefield. Its athletic teams are nicknamed the Bullets. Gettysburg College has about 2,700 students, with roughly equal numbers of men and women. Gettysburg students come from 43 states and 32 countries. In 2012, U.S. News & World Report ranked it 46th among Best Liberal Arts Colleges. The college is the home of The Gettysburg Review, a literary magazine. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 10, 2017
Site:, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has determined its ranking of the best colleges in Pennsylvania for 2017. 50 four-year schools were included on the list, with University of Pennsylvania, Lehigh University, Carnegie Mellon University, Duquesne University and University of Scranton ranked as the top five. 25 two-year schools were also ranked, with Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology, Harrisburg Area Community College—Harrisburg, University of Pittsburgh—Titusville, Bucks County Community College and Manor College taking the top five spots on the list. A list of all winning schools is included below. “These Pennsylvania colleges and universities offer not only great degree programs but also excellent resources for preparing students for post-college careers,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of “They have demonstrated superior overall value to students by providing an overall positive, high-quality educational experience.” To be included on the “Best Colleges in Pennsylvania” list, institutions must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit schools. Each college is also ranked on metrics like the variety of degree programs offered, the number of employment and academic resources offered, financial aid availability, graduation rates and annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the “Best Colleges in Pennsylvania” list, visit: Best Four-Year Colleges in Pennsylvania for 2017 include: Allegheny College Arcadia University Bryn Mawr College Bucknell University Carnegie Mellon University Cedar Crest College Chatham University DeSales University Dickinson College Drexel University Duquesne University Eastern University Elizabethtown College Franklin and Marshall College Gannon University Gettysburg College Gwynedd Mercy University Haverford College Holy Family University Immaculata University Juniata College King's College La Salle University Lafayette College Lebanon Valley College Lehigh University Marywood University Mercyhurst University Messiah College Misericordia University Moravian College Muhlenberg College Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus Rosemont College Saint Francis University Saint Joseph's University Saint Vincent College Susquehanna University Swarthmore College Temple University University of Pennsylvania University of Pittsburgh-Pittsburgh Campus University of Scranton University of the Sciences Ursinus College Villanova University Washington & Jefferson College Westminster College Widener University-Main Campus York College Pennsylvania Best Two-Year Colleges in Pennsylvania for 2017 include: Bucks County Community College Butler County Community College Commonwealth Technical Institute Community College of Allegheny County Community College of Beaver County Community College of Philadelphia Delaware County Community College Harcum College Harrisburg Area Community College - Harrisburg Johnson College Lackawanna College Lehigh Carbon Community College Luzerne County Community College Manor College Montgomery County Community College Northampton County Area Community College Pennsylvania Highlands Community College Pennsylvania Institute of Technology Pittsburgh Institute of Aeronautics Reading Area Community College Rosedale Technical Institute Thaddeus Stevens College of Technology University of Pittsburgh - Titusville Valley Forge Military College Westmoreland County Community College ### About Us: was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.

News Article | May 9, 2017

Certain blood vessels in the brainstem constrict when blood vessels elsewhere in the body would dilate. And that contrary behavior is what keeps us breathing, according to a new paper by UConn researchers published May 8 in eLife. If the body were a marching band, the brainstem would be the drum major. It keeps our heart beating and our lungs breathing in the essential rhythms of life. And just like a drum major, the job is more complex than it looks. If cellular waste products build up in the body, the brainstem has to jolt the lungs into action without disrupting other bodily functions, as surely as a drum major reins in a wayward woodwind section without losing the low brass. Neuroscientists studying the brainstem have focused on neurons, which are brain cells that send signals to one another and all over the body. But focusing just on the neurons in the brainstem is like staring only at the drum major's hands. Recently, neuroscientists have come to understand that astrocytes, cells once thought to simply provide structure to the brain, also release signaling molecules that regulate neurons' function. But until now, no one even considered the possibility that blood vessels may be similarly specialized. For more than a century, doctors and scientists have known that blood vessels dilate when cellular waste products like carbon dioxide build up. Widening the vessels allows fresh blood to flush through, carrying in oxygen and washing away the acidic carbon dioxide. This has been shown to be true throughout the body, and is standard dogma in undergraduate physiology classes. UConn physiologist Dan Mulkey was teaching exactly that to undergraduates one day when he realized that it couldn't possibly be true in a certain part of the brainstem. "I thought, wow. If that happened in the region of the brain I study, it would be counterproductive," Mulkey says. He studies the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a small region in the brainstem that controls breathing. He's shown in the past that RTN neurons respond to rising levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream by stimulating the lungs to breathe. But if the blood vessels in the RTN dilated in response to rising carbon dioxide the same way blood vessels do everywhere else, it would wash out that all-important signal, preventing cells in the RTN from doing their job driving us to breathe. It would be as if the drum major didn't notice the percussion section wandering off to left field. When Mulkey returned to the lab, he asked his team, including NIH postdoctoral fellow Virginia Hawkins, to see how blood vessels in thin slices of brainstem respond to carbon dioxide. And they saw it was indeed true - RTN blood vessels constricted when carbon dioxide levels rose. But blood vessels from slices of cortex (the wrinkled top part of the brain) dilated in response to high carbon dioxide, just like the rest of the body. But how did the blood vessels know to act differently in the RTN? Mulkey guessed that RTN astrocytes had something to do with it. He suspected that the astrocytes were releasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a small molecule cells can use to signal one another. And that was causing the RTN blood vessels to constrict. When they tested it, they found the hypothesis was correct. The astrocytes in the RTN were behaving differently than astrocytes anywhere else in the body. When these brainstem astrocytes detected high levels of carbon dioxide, they released ATP signaling to the neurons and blood vessels. When the researchers induced the astrocytes artificially to release ATP, they got the same results. Bathing the RTN blood vessels directly in ATP also caused them to constrict. Blocking ATP receptors blocked the ability of blood vessels to respond to carbon dioxide. When the team did the same experiments in live animals, they got the same results. Perhaps most importantly, manipulating blood vessels in the RTN actually influenced how animals breathe, thus linking regulation of blood vessel diameter to behavior. The majority of this research was done by UConn undergraduates, including Ashley Trinh, Colin Cleary, and Todd Dubreuil, as well as Elliot Rodriguez, a summer student in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates in Physiology and Neurobiology program at UConn, who studies at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania the rest of the year. The students' work uncovered a major discovery in neurophysiology. The work was funded in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (HL104101 HL126381) and the Connecticut Department of Public Health (150263). "This is a big change in how we think about breathing," Mulkey says. And about blood vessels. Even in a single organ like the brain, the purpose of blood flow is not the same everywhere. Tailored responses in the RTN keep the body's drum major conducting, and let the band play on.

Strickland M.,Gettysburg College | Strickland M.,Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

I compute the thermal suppression of the Υ(1s) and χb1 states in √sNN=2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. Using the suppression of each of these states I estimate the total RAA for the Υ(1s) state as a function of centrality, rapidity, and transverse momentum. I find less suppression of the χb1 state than would be traditionally assumed; however, my final results for the total Υ(1s) suppression are in good agreement with recent preliminary CMS data. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Stillwaggon E.,Gettysburg College
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2012

The persistence of highly endemic parasitic, bacterial and viral diseases makes individuals and populations vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging diseases. Evaluating the role of multiple component, often interacting, causes of disease may be impossible with research tools designed to isolate single causes. Similarly, it may not be possible to identify statistically significant treatment effects, even for interventions known to be effective, when multiple morbidities are present. Evidence continues to accumulate that nutritional deficiencies, bacterial, viral and parasitic coinfections accelerate HIV transmission. Inclusion of antiparasitics and other beneficial interventions in HIV-prevention protocols is impeded by reliance on inappropriate methodologies. Lack of full scientific certainty is not a reason for postponing safe, cost-effective measures to prevent irreversible damage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ROBUST INTELLIGENCE | Award Amount: 235.77K | Year: 2015

Linguists have increased efforts to collect authentic speech materials from endangered and little-studied languages to discover linguistic diversity. However, the challenge of transcribing these speech into written form to facilitate analysis is daunting. This is because of both the sheer quantity of digitally collected speech that needs to be transcribed and the difficulty of unpacking the sounds of spoken speech.

Linguist Andreas Kathol and computer scientist Vikramjit Mitra of SRI international and linguist Jonathan D. Amith of Gettysburg College will team up to create software that can substantially reduce the language transcription bottleneck. Using as a test case Yoloxochitl Mixtec, an endangered language from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, the team will develop a software tool that will use previously transcribed Yoloxochitl Mixtec speech data to both train a new generation of native speakers in practical orthography and to develop automatic speech recognition software. The output of the recognition software will be used as preliminary transcription that native speakers will correct, as necessary, to create additional high-quality training data. This recursive method will create corpus of transcribed speech large enough so that software will be able to complete automatic transcription of newly collected speech materials.

The project will include the training of undergraduate and graduate students in software development and the analysis of the Yoloxochitl Mixtec sound system. The project will also train native speakers as documenters in an interactive fashion that systematically introduces them to the transcription conventions of their language. This software tool will help in establishing literacy in Yoloxochitl Mixtec among a broader base of speakers.

The results of this project will be available at the Archive of Indigenous Languages of Latin America (University of Texas, Austin), Kaipuleohone (University of Hawaii Digital Language Archive), and at the Linguistic Data Consortium (University of Pennsylvania).

Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: POLITICAL SCIENCE | Award Amount: 138.95K | Year: 2016

General Summary

This study seeks to better understand how power-sharing arrangements foster peace in the aftermath of civil war. Power-sharing institutions, rules to apportion political, military, economic, and territorial power among former belligerents, are an increasingly prevalent feature of civil war settlements. Academics have posited that power-sharing institutions secure the commitment of elites and the masses to stability by providing key political goods: security for both elites and masses, inclusion for elites, and basic services for the masses. In the absence of data appropriate for testing those hypotheses, however, previous research has been unable to identify the exact causal mechanisms through which power sharing fosters stability after civil war. This study addresses this gap in our understanding of power sharing by collecting micro-level data on elites and masses knowledge about and perceptions of the effects that these institutions have on the delivery of political goods. Data collection in the form of interviews and surveys will be conducted in the Mindanao region of the Philippines, where efforts at civil war resolution have at times featured the use of power-sharing mechanisms. The principal investigators will use these data to conduct statistical analyses of the effects that power sharing has on different groups commitment to the peace. The information obtained from this study will serve to inform policymakers about the best practices for the design and implementation of power-sharing arrangements in the aftermath of civil war.

Technical Summary

This study seeks to better understand how power-sharing arrangements may foster peace in the aftermath of civil war. Powers sharing institutions, rules to apportion political, military, economic, and territorial power among former belligerents, are an increasingly prevalent feature of civil war settlements. This research will critically examine the hypothesis that power-sharing arrangements promote peace by providing citizens with important political goods such as security and access to basic services. This will be accomplished by focusing on the Mindanao region of the Philippines, where efforts at civil war resolution have at times featured the use of power-sharing mechanisms. Conducting open-ended interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews with focus groups, surveys of the population in conflict-affected areas, and survey experiments, the principal investigators will gather micro-level data that make it possible to answer two key questions. First, do individuals residing in regions included in a post-civil war power-sharing arrangement have greater access to political goods relative to comparable populations excluded from power sharing? Second, is there a correlation between access to political goods and an individuals support for the post-conflict peace process?

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: NUCLEAR STRUCTURE & REACTIONS | Award Amount: 28.00K | Year: 2016

Atomic nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons. For the lighter elements the number of protons is very often equal to the number of neutrons in the nucleus. However, nuclei also exist in which there are extra neutrons, or neutron-rich nuclei, which are unstable and undergo nuclear decay. This project focuses on the study of these neutron-rich unstable nuclei and will investigate key questions in nuclear science related to the overall structure of nuclei: What are the fundamental properties of extremely neutron-rich matter and what is the limit of nuclear existence? The project will be carried out by Gettysburg College undergraduates and a faculty member with the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) Collaboration and Large area multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA) at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Gettysburg College students supported by this funding will learn significant new physics as they develop the tools necessary to be researchers in academia and industry.

Undergraduate students and their faculty are advancing the field in various ways, ranging from how beams of rare isotopes interact with matter to the exciting possibility of two-neutron radioactivity. Objectives include creating He-9 two different ways experimentally at the NSCL to not only shed light on conflicting prior results but also to better understand the halo nucleus He-10. Measuring the lifetime of O-26 could confirm a new mode of radioactivity. An analysis project focusing on the production mechanism for projectile fragmentation will impact the physics communitys currently limited understanding of beam production mechanics at radioactive beam facilities. All proposed work will involve undergraduate researchers.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY | Award Amount: 449.94K | Year: 2014

In order to understand the diversity and potential benefits of plant life around the world and to assess the impact of the loss of biodiversity, it is necessary to create an accurate floristic inventory of bio-diverse regions and to record the evolving interactions of humans with that rich environment. To this end, botanist John Kress of the Smithsonian will use innovative DNA barcoding methodology to facilitate rapid identification to species of the flora specimens collected in five Nahuat and two Totonac villages in the 28 municipalities of the Sierra Nororiental de Puebla, Mexico -- an incredibly bio-diverse region of the world. Working in tandem with Kress, linguist Jonathan Amith of Gettysburg College will use state-of-the-art language documentation techniques to create an extensive digital database of recordings of native experts discussing traditional nomenclature and classification of local flora. The linguistic and botanical databases will support the preservation of indigenous knowledge about the biodiversity of this region.

Amith and Kress hypothesize that accessing botanical information from endangered languages will help track changes in the ecology of the ancestral homelands of endangered language communities. In addition, Amith and Kress theorize that comparative botanical information across geographically proximate villages will reveal historical patterns of migration, cultural contact, and language change. Using data from the endangered language discussions about plant life in the region and DNA barcode reference library, Amith will study shifts of biotaxa nomenclature. He will use clues from lexical borrowing and calques to map the spread of knowledge about particular botanical specimens and link that spread to community migrations.

Data will be stored in various herbariums in Mexico and at the Smithsonian Museum. Linguistic data will be accessible at the Archive of Indigenous Languages of Latin America. This project supported by NSFs Office of International and Integrative Activities because it enhances research excellence through international collaboration with faculty at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and will benefit from use of local resources such as the National Herbarium of Mexico and the Comisión Nacional Para El Connocimineto Y Uso De La Biodiversidad.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SYMBIOSIS DEF & SELF RECOG | Award Amount: 33.37K | Year: 2014

The investigators have recently discovered the first example of a beneficial, symbiotic alga entering cells of a vertebrate host. The host in this association is the common spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) from Eastern North America. The green algal symbiont enters tissues and cells of the salamander embryos soon after they begin development in temporary vernal pools. The project will use several experimental approaches, including cell co-culturing, mRNA sequencing, and laser-based cell sorting, to determine the mechanisms of algal cell entry into the salamander host and the physiological implications of this unique association. The successful completion of this project will also make new tools available for introducing foreign genes (transgenics) in both the algal symbiont and salamander host, which will allow further investigation into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that enable this intimate association. The project will include training of undergraduate students from Gettysburg College in both field sampling of multiple salamander species as well as advanced techniques in cell culture, cell sorting, and next generation sequencing. The project will also support a museum video exhibit through the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and fund a post-doctoral researcher at the museum.

This project outlines several high-risk high-reward experiments that will significantly advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this intimate association and provide a suite of research tools for future investigations. The methods that will be employed to accomplish these goals include: Collecting salamander embryos from New York, Pennsylvania and Washington State; Culturing embryos and their algae from two salamander species and switching symbionts between hosts; Dissociation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of host cells containing algal endosymbionts; Transcriptomics and accompanying bioinformatics to determine differentially expressed genes in the host+endosymbiont cell population; Establishing host endoderm cell culture for in vitro co-culturing with algal symbionts; Pilot transgene transformation of both host and symbiont cell cultures using protocols and vectors established in closely related model organisms. The results from this work will reveal how a host?s response to a beneficial symbiont can differ from known vertebrate reactions to harmful pathogens that enter host cells.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 605.61K | Year: 2015

This project will award scholarships to 26 students, in three cohorts, in the following STEM disciplines: Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics, and Physics. In its selection, the college will take heightened interest in academically-promising underrepresented minority and first-generation students with financial need. By carefully targeting recruitment efforts and providing mentoring during the first two years at college, the project will create a constructive environment to nurture students in order to increase retention and persistence in their chosen STEM majors. The project will increase the number of talented STEM majors with the potential to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in a broad range of scientific endeavors, and will train a diverse group of students for eventual employment in STEM fields.

In order to successfully retain students, the project will include a recruitment plan that integrates individualized outreach to students identified in collaboration with Community Based Organizations, enrollment in an exclusive First-Year Seminar taught by STEM faculty, STEM Faculty Liaisons in each of the science departments serving as academic advisors, mentors, and facilitators, and a variety of on- and off-campus learning activities. The projects objectives during the Scholars first year are: (1) to prepare and support the S-STEM Scholars for a successful undergraduate career, (2) to provide continuing practice for the skills necessary for STEM, and (3) to build and nurture a sense of community among the S-STEM Scholar cohorts. During their sophomore year, each S-STEM Scholar will continue to be closely mentored by their STEM Faculty Liaison advisor, who will support and encourage their participation in various STEM opportunities including faculty-student research, peer-mentoring, colloquia, preferential residence in Gettysburg Colleges Science House as well as work-related internship opportunities with institutional industry partners. Assessment of the efficacy of these different activities will help contribute to expanding the knowledge base regarding the circumstances under which scholarship projects of this type are successful.

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