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Gettysburg, PA, United States

Gettysburg College is a private, four-year liberal arts college founded in 1832, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, United States, adjacent to the famous battlefield. Its athletic teams are nicknamed the Bullets. Gettysburg College has about 2,700 students, with roughly equal numbers of men and women. Gettysburg students come from 43 states and 32 countries. In 2012, U.S. News & World Report ranked it 46th among Best Liberal Arts Colleges. The college is the home of The Gettysburg Review, a literary magazine. Wikipedia.

Stillwaggon E.,Gettysburg College
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2012

The persistence of highly endemic parasitic, bacterial and viral diseases makes individuals and populations vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging diseases. Evaluating the role of multiple component, often interacting, causes of disease may be impossible with research tools designed to isolate single causes. Similarly, it may not be possible to identify statistically significant treatment effects, even for interventions known to be effective, when multiple morbidities are present. Evidence continues to accumulate that nutritional deficiencies, bacterial, viral and parasitic coinfections accelerate HIV transmission. Inclusion of antiparasitics and other beneficial interventions in HIV-prevention protocols is impeded by reliance on inappropriate methodologies. Lack of full scientific certainty is not a reason for postponing safe, cost-effective measures to prevent irreversible damage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Strickland M.,Gettysburg College
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

I discuss recent calculations of the thermal suppression of bottomonium states in relativistic heavy ion collisions. I present results for the inclusive Υ(1s) and Υ(2s) suppression as a function of centrality. I compare with the most recent CMS preliminary data available at central rapidities and make predictions at forward rapidities which are within the acceptance of the ALICE dimuon spectrometer. © 2013 American Institute of Physics. Source

Platt R.V.,Gettysburg College
Journal of Forestry | Year: 2010

The wildland- urban interface (WUI) is the area where human-built structures and infrastructure abut or mix with naturally occurring vegetation types. Wildfires are of particular concern in the WUI because these areas comprise extensive flammable vegetation, numerous structures, and ample ignition sources. A priority of federal wildland fire policy in the United States is to help protect communities threatened by wildfire, creating a demand for maps of the WUI. In this study, five models of the WUI are compared for four counties in the United States. The models are all based on the widely cited characteristics of the WUI published in the Federal Register, although they differ slightly in their focus (vegetation or housing) and implementation (the details of the WUI definition). For models that differ in focus, I describe how the purpose of the map led to different results. For conceptually similar models, I assess how different effects-the "dasymetric effect," the "settlement representation effect," and the "merging buffer effect"-influence the extent of the WUI in different counties. The differences between the WUI maps can be more or less pronounced depending on the spatial distribution of housing, vegetation, and public land. No single mapping approach is unequivocally superior, and each has tradeoffs that need to be fully understood for use in management. © 2010 by the Society of American Foresters. Source

Fong P.P.,Gettysburg College | Ford A.T.,University of Portsmouth
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014

Antidepressants are among the most commonly detected human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Since their mode of action is by modulating the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, aquatic invertebrates who possess transporters and receptors sensitive to activation by these pharmaceuticals are potentially affected by them. We review the various types of antidepressants, their occurrence and concentrations in aquatic environments, and the actions of neurohormones modulated by antidepressants in molluscs and crustaceans. Recent studies on the effects of antidepressants on these two important groups show that molluscan reproductive and locomotory systems are affected by antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations. In particular, antidepressants affect spawning and larval release in bivalves and disrupt locomotion and reduce fecundity in snails. In crustaceans, antidepressants affect freshwater amphipod activity patterns, marine amphipod photo- and geotactic behavior, crayfish aggression, and daphnid reproduction and development. We note with interest the occurrence of non-monotonic dose responses curves in many studies on effects of antidepressants on aquatic animals, often with effects at low concentrations, but not at higher concentrations, and we suggest future experiments consider testing a broader range of concentrations. Furthermore, we consider invertebrate immune responses, genomic and transcriptomic sequencing of invertebrate genes, and the ever-present and overwhelming question of how contaminant mixtures could affect the action of neurohormones as topics for future study. In addressing the question, if antidepressants affect aquatic invertebrates at concentrations currently found in the environment, there is strong evidence to suggest the answer is yes. Furthermore, the examples highlighted in this review provide compelling evidence that the effects could be quite multifaceted across a variety of biological systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Barlett C.,Gettysburg College | Coyne S.M.,Brigham Young University
Aggressive Behavior | Year: 2014

The current research used meta-analysis to determine whether (a) sex differences emerged in cyber-bullying frequency, (b) if age moderated any sex effect, and (c) if any additional moderators (e.g., publication year and status, country and continent of data collection) influenced the sex effect. Theoretically, if cyber-bullying is considered a form of traditional bullying and aggression, males are likely to cyber-bully more than females. Conversely, if cyber-bullying is considered relational/indirect aggression, females will be slightly more likely to cyber-bully than males. Results from 122 effect size estimates showed that males were slightly more likely to cyber-bully than females; however, age moderated the overall effect. Specifically, females were more likely to report cyber-bullying during early to mid-adolescence than males, while males showed higher levels of cyber-bullying during later adolescence than females. Publication status and year and continent and country of data collection also moderated the overall effect. Aggr. Behav. 40:474-488, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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