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Gettysburg, PA, United States

Gettysburg College is a private, four-year liberal arts college founded in 1832, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, United States, adjacent to the famous battlefield. Its athletic teams are nicknamed the Bullets. Gettysburg College has about 2,700 students, with roughly equal numbers of men and women. Gettysburg students come from 43 states and 32 countries. In 2012, U.S. News & World Report ranked it 46th among Best Liberal Arts Colleges. The college is the home of The Gettysburg Review, a literary magazine. Wikipedia.

Stillwaggon E.,Gettysburg College
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2012

The persistence of highly endemic parasitic, bacterial and viral diseases makes individuals and populations vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging diseases. Evaluating the role of multiple component, often interacting, causes of disease may be impossible with research tools designed to isolate single causes. Similarly, it may not be possible to identify statistically significant treatment effects, even for interventions known to be effective, when multiple morbidities are present. Evidence continues to accumulate that nutritional deficiencies, bacterial, viral and parasitic coinfections accelerate HIV transmission. Inclusion of antiparasitics and other beneficial interventions in HIV-prevention protocols is impeded by reliance on inappropriate methodologies. Lack of full scientific certainty is not a reason for postponing safe, cost-effective measures to prevent irreversible damage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Strickland M.,Gettysburg College
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

I discuss recent calculations of the thermal suppression of bottomonium states in relativistic heavy ion collisions. I present results for the inclusive Υ(1s) and Υ(2s) suppression as a function of centrality. I compare with the most recent CMS preliminary data available at central rapidities and make predictions at forward rapidities which are within the acceptance of the ALICE dimuon spectrometer. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

Fong P.P.,Gettysburg College | Ford A.T.,University of Portsmouth
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014

Antidepressants are among the most commonly detected human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Since their mode of action is by modulating the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, aquatic invertebrates who possess transporters and receptors sensitive to activation by these pharmaceuticals are potentially affected by them. We review the various types of antidepressants, their occurrence and concentrations in aquatic environments, and the actions of neurohormones modulated by antidepressants in molluscs and crustaceans. Recent studies on the effects of antidepressants on these two important groups show that molluscan reproductive and locomotory systems are affected by antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations. In particular, antidepressants affect spawning and larval release in bivalves and disrupt locomotion and reduce fecundity in snails. In crustaceans, antidepressants affect freshwater amphipod activity patterns, marine amphipod photo- and geotactic behavior, crayfish aggression, and daphnid reproduction and development. We note with interest the occurrence of non-monotonic dose responses curves in many studies on effects of antidepressants on aquatic animals, often with effects at low concentrations, but not at higher concentrations, and we suggest future experiments consider testing a broader range of concentrations. Furthermore, we consider invertebrate immune responses, genomic and transcriptomic sequencing of invertebrate genes, and the ever-present and overwhelming question of how contaminant mixtures could affect the action of neurohormones as topics for future study. In addressing the question, if antidepressants affect aquatic invertebrates at concentrations currently found in the environment, there is strong evidence to suggest the answer is yes. Furthermore, the examples highlighted in this review provide compelling evidence that the effects could be quite multifaceted across a variety of biological systems. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Barlett C.,Gettysburg College | Coyne S.M.,Brigham Young University
Aggressive Behavior | Year: 2014

The current research used meta-analysis to determine whether (a) sex differences emerged in cyber-bullying frequency, (b) if age moderated any sex effect, and (c) if any additional moderators (e.g., publication year and status, country and continent of data collection) influenced the sex effect. Theoretically, if cyber-bullying is considered a form of traditional bullying and aggression, males are likely to cyber-bully more than females. Conversely, if cyber-bullying is considered relational/indirect aggression, females will be slightly more likely to cyber-bully than males. Results from 122 effect size estimates showed that males were slightly more likely to cyber-bully than females; however, age moderated the overall effect. Specifically, females were more likely to report cyber-bullying during early to mid-adolescence than males, while males showed higher levels of cyber-bullying during later adolescence than females. Publication status and year and continent and country of data collection also moderated the overall effect. Aggr. Behav. 40:474-488, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ROBUST INTELLIGENCE | Award Amount: 235.77K | Year: 2015

Linguists have increased efforts to collect authentic speech materials from endangered and little-studied languages to discover linguistic diversity. However, the challenge of transcribing these speech into written form to facilitate analysis is daunting. This is because of both the sheer quantity of digitally collected speech that needs to be transcribed and the difficulty of unpacking the sounds of spoken speech.

Linguist Andreas Kathol and computer scientist Vikramjit Mitra of SRI international and linguist Jonathan D. Amith of Gettysburg College will team up to create software that can substantially reduce the language transcription bottleneck. Using as a test case Yoloxochitl Mixtec, an endangered language from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, the team will develop a software tool that will use previously transcribed Yoloxochitl Mixtec speech data to both train a new generation of native speakers in practical orthography and to develop automatic speech recognition software. The output of the recognition software will be used as preliminary transcription that native speakers will correct, as necessary, to create additional high-quality training data. This recursive method will create corpus of transcribed speech large enough so that software will be able to complete automatic transcription of newly collected speech materials.

The project will include the training of undergraduate and graduate students in software development and the analysis of the Yoloxochitl Mixtec sound system. The project will also train native speakers as documenters in an interactive fashion that systematically introduces them to the transcription conventions of their language. This software tool will help in establishing literacy in Yoloxochitl Mixtec among a broader base of speakers.

The results of this project will be available at the Archive of Indigenous Languages of Latin America (University of Texas, Austin), Kaipuleohone (University of Hawaii Digital Language Archive), and at the Linguistic Data Consortium (University of Pennsylvania).

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