Rammstedt B.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science |
Farmer R.F.,Oregon Research Institute
Psychological Assessment | Year: 2013
Acquiescence, or the tendency to respond to descriptions of conceptually distinct personality attributes with agreement/affirmation (acceptance acquiescence) or disagreement/opposition (counter-acquiescence), has been widely recognized as a source of bias that can substantially alter interitem correlations within scales. Acquiescence is also known to operate differently among some groups of persons; it is, for example, more pronounced among individuals with less formal education. Consequently, the biasing effects of acquiescence are of particular concern when the dimensionality underlying the item set of a measure is examined with representative samples comprised of persons with varying levels of educational attainment and evaluated with correlation-based statistical methods such as factor analysis. In the present study, we extended our earlier research by investigating the biasing effect of acquiescence on personality factor structures derived from the full-scale version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI) when administered to a large sample (N = 1,427) selected to be representative of Germany's adult population. Consistent with previous findings based on a short-scale version of the BFI, factor analyses of the unadjusted BFI item set failed to replicate the expected Big Five-factor structure in the low/medium and high educational groups, with distortions in factor structure more pronounced in the former group. Once acquiescence was controlled in the item responses for both groups, however, the obtained factor structures were consistent with the Big Five framework. The implications of acquiescence on the evaluation of the factor structure of personality inventories and for the validity of personality assessments are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association.
Zhao D.,University of Alberta |
Strotmann A.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2014
This study continues a long history of author cocitation analysis (and more recently, author bibliographic coupling analysis) of the intellectual structure of information science (IS) into the time period 2006 to 2010 (IS 2006-2010). We find that web technologies continue to drive developments, especially at the research front, although perhaps more indirectly than before. A broadening of perspectives is visible in IS 2006-2010, where network science becomes influential and where full-text analysis methods complement traditional computer science influences. Research in the areas of the h-index and mapping of science appears to have been highlights of IS 2006-2011. This study tests and confirms a forecast made previously by comparing knowledge-base and research-front findings for IS 2001-2005, which expected both the information retrieval (IR) systems and webometrics specialties to shrink in 2006 to 2010. A corresponding comparison of the knowledge base and research front of IS 2006-2010 suggests a continuing decline of the IR systems specialty in the near future, but also a considerable (re)growth of the webometrics area after a period of decline from 2001 to 2005 and 2006 to 2010, with the latter due perhaps in part to its contribution to an emerging web science. © 2014 ASIS&T.
Posch L.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2014
The rapidly increasing number of scientific documents available publicly on the Internet creates the challenge of efficiently organizing and indexing these documents. Due to the time consuming and tedious nature of manual classification and indexing, there is a need for better methods to automate this process. This thesis proposes an approach which leverages encyclopedic background knowledge for enriching domain-specific ontologies with textual and structural information about the semantic vicinity of the ontologies’ concepts. The proposed approach aims to exploit this information for improving both ontology-based methods for classifying and indexing documents and methods based on supervised machine learning. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.
Schulz S.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2015
Objectives: General Strain Theory (Agnew in Criminology 30:47–87, 1992) has received broad empirical support, but little is known about moderators of the strain-delinquency relationship. This study tests whether self-control attenuates the relationship between a certain type of delinquency—violence—and its most important precursor, considered a type of strain: interpersonal provocation. This study compares the conditioning effects of risk-affinity and self-control/impulsivity on the provocation-violence link, since recent work suggests differentiating between both characteristics. Methods: The provocation-violence link is examined (1) using a scenario design with randomly varied degrees of objective provocation and a measure of projected violence, and (2) with measures of self-reported past violence and subjective sensitivity to provocation. The analyses are based on a large sample of seventh-graders (n = 2635) from five cities in Western Germany, interviewed in 2013. Linear probability models regressing violence measures on personal traits, provocation measures, and their interactions are estimated. Results: Both self-control and risk-affinity moderate the relationship between subjective sensitivity to provocation and past violent behavior. Students with high self-control are able to control their anger and do not turn violent, even when they feel provoked easily. However, only risk-affinity significantly amplifies the effect of objective provocation on prospective violence when simultaneously controlling for the conditioning effect of self-control. Conclusions: Findings underscore that both self-control and risk-aversion are important coping resources. This study highlights the importance of using internally consistent and mechanism-congruent measures in the study of illicit coping processes and conditioning factors and discourages from using composite, potentially multidimensional measures. © 2015 The Author(s)
Weller K.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science
Online Information Review | Year: 2016
Purpose - The purpose of this paper from the series "Monitoring the Media: Spotlight on Social Media Research" is to look into different approaches to study uses of social media platforms - from user statistics to motivations for using specific features within a platform. Design/methodology/approach - Based on a literature review some general findings on social media usage are summarized alongside with examples of user activities that are rarely studied. Findings - The paper concludes that social media research has neglected to question the use of more recent features in social media platforms, such as Twitter favorites or Facebook hashtags, as well as the more "destructive" activities in social networking such as unfollowing. Originality/value - The paper draws attention to some features of popular social media platforms which are currently understudied. It raises awareness for these specific gaps in social media research and could inspire future studies to close the gap. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited 2016.
Mayr P.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science
Proceedings of ISSI 2013 - 14th International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics Conference | Year: 2013
The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of the effectiveness of the bibliometric technique Bradfordizing in an information retrieval (IR) scenario. Bradfordizing is used to re-rank topical document sets from conventional abstracting & indexing (A&I) databases into core and more peripheral document zones. Bradfordized lists of journal articles and monographs will be tested in a controlled scenario consisting of different A&I databases from social and political sciences, economics, psychology and medical science, 164 standardized IR topics and intellectual assessments of the listed documents. Does Bradfordizing improve the ratio of relevant documents in the first third (core) compared to the second and last third (zone 2 and zone 3, respectively)? The IR tests show that relevance distributions after re-ranking improve at a significant level if documents in the core are compared with documents in the succeeding zones. After Bradfordizing of document pools, the core has a significant better average precision than zone 2, zone 3 and baseline. This paper should be seen as an argument in favour of alternative non-textual (bibliometric) re-ranking methods which can be simply applied in text-based retrieval systems and in particular in A&I databases. © AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH Vienna 2013.
Weller K.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science
Online Information Review | Year: 2015
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new viewpoint series, Monitoring the Media: Spotlight on Social Media Research, by providing an overview of the key challenges in social media research and some current initiatives in addressing them. Design/methodology/approach-The paper considers publication output from disciplines dealing with social media studies and summarises the key challenges as discussed in the broader research community. Findings-The paper suggests that challenges originate both from the interdisciplinary nature of social media research and from the ever-changing research landscape. It concludes that, whilst the community is addressing some challenges, others require more attention. Originality/value-The paper summarises key challenges of social media and will be of interest to researchers in different disciplines, as well as a general audience, wanting to learn about how social media data are used for research. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Stier S.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science
CEUR Workshop Proceedings | Year: 2016
Because of their ever-growing importance, elite actors from the political sphere and news media have integrated social network sites and especially Twitter into their communication strategies. However, the extent of these adaptation processes is not yet fully understood. This article presents lists of U.S. actors from politics, news media and government. As an exploratory analysis, the influence of elites in U.S. political Twitter debates is investigated by applying basic measures of Twitter influence to two test datasets. Copyright © 2016 held by author(s)/owner(s).
Strotmann A.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science |
Zhao D.,University of Alberta
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012
In this article, we explore how strongly author name disambiguation (AND) affects the results of an author-based citation analysis study, and identify conditions under which the traditional simplified approach of using surnames and first initials may suffice in practice. We compare author citation ranking and cocitation mapping results in the stem cell research field from 2004 to 2009 using two AND approaches: the traditional simplified approach of using author surname and first initial and a sophisticated algorithmic approach. We find that the traditional approach leads to extremely distorted rankings and substantially distorted mappings of authors in this field when based on first- or all-author citation counting, whereas last-author-based citation ranking and cocitation mapping both appear relatively immune to the author name ambiguity problem. This is largely because Romanized names of Chinese and Korean authors, who are very active in this field, are extremely ambiguous, but few of these researchers consistently publish as last authors in bylines. We conclude that a more earnest effort is required to deal with the author name ambiguity problem in both citation analysis and information retrieval, especially given the current trend toward globalization. In the stem cell research field, in which laboratory heads are traditionally listed as last authors in bylines, last-author-based citation ranking and cocitation mapping using the traditional approach to author name disambiguation may serve as a simple workaround, but likely at the price of largely filtering out Chinese and Korean contributions to the field as well as important contributions by young researchers. © 2012 ASIS&T.
Struminskaya B.,GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social science
Social Science Computer Review | Year: 2016
In this article, we investigate changes in survey reporting due to prior interviewing. Two field experiments were implemented in a probability-based online panel in which the order of the questionnaires was switched. Although experimental methods for studying panel conditioning are favorable, experiments in longitudinal studies are rare. Studies on conditioning demand additional resources and might influence respondents’ answers. Panel conditioning is mostly associated with measurement errors. However, the discussion that sees it exclusively as a negative phenomenon is not comprehensive. Learning the rules of the interview may lead to increases or decreases in data quality (advantageous vs. disadvantageous conditioning). Overall, little evidence of advantageous conditioning and no disadvantageous conditioning is found. Apart from this reassuring finding, this aricle advances the field by using propensity score weighting to account for attrition and other confounding factors and by using paradata to evaluate the plausibility of alternative explanations of panel conditioning. © 2015, The Author(s) 2015.