Wright T.C.,Columbia University |
Kuhn L.,Gertrude rgievsky Center
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012
Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women living in developing countries, largely because of the failure either to initiate or sustain effective cervical-cancer screening programmes. This potentially preventable and curable cancer continues to cause high mortality among relatively young women residing in low-resource countries. Cytology as a screening test, linked with a robust healthcare infrastructure, has significantly affected cervical cancer prevention in countries that have had sufficient resources to establish and sustain well-conducted programmes. The failure to establish such programmes has stimulated a large body of research into alternative screening tests and approaches to cervical-cancer prevention. Two of the most recent research methods have been visual inspection with acetic acid and molecular testing for high-risk types of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid. Visual inspection with acetic acid has shown a great deal of promise in cross-sectional studies; however, in randomised-controlled trials, it has been shown to be significantly less effective in reducing cervical cancer or its precursors. The development of point-of-care human papillomavirus or other highly sensitive tests for the prevention of cervical cancer is imperative. It has also been clearly shown that linking testing or screening to treatment (so-called 'screen and treat') without the intervention of colposcopy or the need for sophisticated laboratories may potentially prevent cervical cancer in large numbers of women. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Price C.C.,University of Florida |
Cosentino S.,Gertrude rgievsky Center |
Cosentino S.,Tub Institute for Research on Alzheimers Disease and the Aging Brain |
Cosentino S.,Columbia University |
And 5 more authors.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders | Year: 2011
Background: Clock drawing is part of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test but may have administration and scoring limitations. We assessed (1) the reliability of the MoCA clock criteria relative to a published error scoring approach, (2) whether command-only administration could distinguish dementia from cognitively intact individuals and (3) the value of adding a clock copy condition to the MoCA. Methods: Three novice raters and clocks from dementia and control participants were used to assess the 3 aims. Results: MoCA interrater and intrarater reliability were low (i.e. intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.12-0.31) and required repeat training. Clocks drawn to command classified dementia at chance. Inclusion of a copy condition demonstrated expected dementia subgroup patterns. Conclusion: Reliable clock scoring with MoCA criteria requires practice. Supplementing a clock copy to the standard MoCA test (takes <1 min) will improve dementia assessment. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kline J.K.,New York State Psychiatric Institute |
Kline J.K.,Columbia University |
Kline J.K.,Gertrude rgievsky Center |
Kinney A.M.,Columbia University |
And 4 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2014
Objective: Premutation and intermediate CGG repeat length at the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) locus have been associated with premature ovarian failure. We tested whether intermediate length is associated with indicators of ovarian age in a sample of fertile women. Our primary measures of ovarian age were antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Methods: The cross-sectional sample comprised 258 women with karyotyped spontaneous abortions (140 trisomic spontaneous abortions and 118 chromosomally normal spontaneous abortions or spontaneous abortions with anomalies other than trisomy) and 325 women with recent live births (LBs). We analyzed data from the total sample and data from LBs only. We defined CGG repeat length by the length (both continuous and categorical) on the longer allele. Results: CGG repeat length was not significantly associated with either hormone measure. A repeat length of 35 to 54 CGG, versus the modal category of 30 CGG, was associated with an approximately 7% increase in median AMH level and a 3% increase in median FSH level. Results were unaltered when analyses were limited to LBs. Analyses of hormone levels using cutpoints to define older ovarian age showed no associations with repeat length. Among 10 women with repeat lengths of 35 to 54 CGG analyzed for AGG sequences, the uninterrupted CGG length was not significantly longer among women with hormonal indicators of "old" versus "young" ovarian age. Conclusions: Our data do not support an association between intermediate CGG repeat length and levels of AMH or FSH among fertile women. © 2014 by The North American Menopause Society.
Dong H.V.,Institute of Human Nutrition |
Shiau S.,Gertrude rgievsky Center |
Yin M.T.,Columbia University
AIDS | Year: 2014
Objective: There is growing evidence that fracture risk is increased in individuals with HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of fracture is increased in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A search was performed of Medline, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases, as well as of abstracts from annual retroviral, liver and bone meetings (up to 2013) for studies with bone mineral density (BMD) or bone fracture data for HIV/ HCV-coinfected individuals. Osteoporosis odds ratios (ORs) and fracture incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated from studies with data on HIV-monoinfected or HIV/HCVuninfected comparison groups. Results: Of 15 included studies, nine reported BMD data and six reported fracture data. For HIV/HCV-coinfected, the estimated osteoporosis prevalence was 22% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 12-31] and the crude OR for osteoporosis compared with HIV-monoinfected was 1.63 (95% CI 1.27-2.11). The pooled IRR of overall fracture risk for HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals was 1.77 (95% CI 1.44-2.18) compared with HIV-monoinfected and 2.95 (95% CI 2.17-4.01) compared with uninfected individuals. In addition to HIV/HCV-coinfection, older age, lower BMI, smoking, alcohol and substance use were significant predictors of osteoporosis and fractures across studies. Conclusion: HIV/HCV coinfection is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and fracture than HIV monoinfection; fracture risk is even greater than uninfected controls. These data suggest that HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals should be targeted for fracture prevention through risk factor modification at all ages and DXA screening at age 50. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health.
Houlihan C.F.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Houlihan C.F.,National Institute for Medical Research |
Larke N.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Watson-Jones D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
And 9 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2012
OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV), one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections, may be a cofactor in HIV acquisition. We systematically reviewed the evidence for an association of HPV infection with HIV acquisition in women, heterosexual men and men who have sex with men (MSM). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies meeting inclusion criteria in Pubmed, Embase and conference abstracts up to 29 July 2011 were identified. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary hazard ratios (HR). Publication bias and statistical heterogeneity were evaluated and population attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated. RESULTS: Eight articles were included, with previously unpublished data from five authors. Seven studies found an association between prevalent HPV and HIV acquisition. Risk of HIV acquisition in women doubled with prevalent HPV infection with any genotype [HR=2.06 (95% CI=1.44-2.94), I=0%], although adjustment for confounders was often inadequate. The effect was similar for high-risk [HR=1.99 (95% CI=1.54-2.56), I=8.4%] and low-risk [HR=2.01 (95% CI=1.27-3.20), I=0%] HPV genotypes with weak evidence of publication bias (P=0.06). Two studies in men were identified: both showed an association between HPV infection and HIV acquisition. Unpublished data from one of two studies in women indicated an association between genotypes targeted by HPV vaccines and HIV acquisition. PAFs for HIV attributable to infection with any HPV genotype ranged between 21 and 37%. CONCLUSION: If further studies validate the association between HPV infection and HIV acquisition, HPV vaccines may reduce HIV incidence in high HPV prevalence populations, in addition to preventing cervical cancer. HIV surveillance studies during implementation of HPV vaccine programmes are warranted. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.