Elma Center, NY, United States
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Manly J.J.,Gertrude rgievsky Center | Manly J.J.,Columbia University Medical Center | Manly J.J.,Columbia University | Schupf N.,Gertrude rgievsky Center | And 11 more authors.
Archives of Neurology | Year: 2011

Background: Telephone-based interviews can be used for screening and to obtain key study outcomes when participants in longitudinal studies die or cannot be seen in person, but must be validated among ethnically and educationally diverse people. Objective: To determine the accuracy of a telephone interview in classifying (1) demented from nondemented participants, (2) cognitively impaired participants from cognitively normal participants, and (3) participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from those with normal cognition or (4) MCI from dementia among an ethnically and educationally diverse community-based sample. Method: The sample consisted of 377 (30.5% non-Hispanic white, 34.7% non-Hispanic black, and 33.7% Caribbean Hispanic) older adults. The validation standard was diagnosis of dementia and MCI based on inperson evaluation. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) and the Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) were administered within the same assessment wave. Results: The sample included 256 people (67.9%) with normal cognition, 68 (18.0%) with MCI, and 53 (14.1%) with dementia. Validity of the TICS was comparable among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics. Among non-Hispanic whites, the DQ had better discrimination of those with dementia from those without dementia and from those with MCI than among other racial/ethnic groups. Telephone measures discriminated best when used to differentiate demented from non-demented participants (88% sensitivity and 87% specificity for the TICS; 66% sensitivity and 89% specificity for DQ) and when used to differentiate cognitively normal participants from those with cognitive impairment (ie, MCI and dementia combined; 73% sensitivity and 77% specificity for the TICS; 49% sensitivity and 82% specificity for DQ). When demographics and prior memory test performance were used to calculate pretest probability, consideration of the telephone measures significantly improved diagnostic validity. Conclusions: The TICS has high diagnostic validity for identification of dementia among ethnically diverse older adults, especially when supported by the DQ and prior visit data. However, telephone interview data were unable to reliably distinguish MCI from normal cognition. ©2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Houlihan C.F.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Houlihan C.F.,National Institute for Medical Research | Larke N.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Watson-Jones D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 9 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV), one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections, may be a cofactor in HIV acquisition. We systematically reviewed the evidence for an association of HPV infection with HIV acquisition in women, heterosexual men and men who have sex with men (MSM). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies meeting inclusion criteria in Pubmed, Embase and conference abstracts up to 29 July 2011 were identified. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary hazard ratios (HR). Publication bias and statistical heterogeneity were evaluated and population attributable fractions (PAFs) calculated. RESULTS: Eight articles were included, with previously unpublished data from five authors. Seven studies found an association between prevalent HPV and HIV acquisition. Risk of HIV acquisition in women doubled with prevalent HPV infection with any genotype [HR=2.06 (95% CI=1.44-2.94), I=0%], although adjustment for confounders was often inadequate. The effect was similar for high-risk [HR=1.99 (95% CI=1.54-2.56), I=8.4%] and low-risk [HR=2.01 (95% CI=1.27-3.20), I=0%] HPV genotypes with weak evidence of publication bias (P=0.06). Two studies in men were identified: both showed an association between HPV infection and HIV acquisition. Unpublished data from one of two studies in women indicated an association between genotypes targeted by HPV vaccines and HIV acquisition. PAFs for HIV attributable to infection with any HPV genotype ranged between 21 and 37%. CONCLUSION: If further studies validate the association between HPV infection and HIV acquisition, HPV vaccines may reduce HIV incidence in high HPV prevalence populations, in addition to preventing cervical cancer. HIV surveillance studies during implementation of HPV vaccine programmes are warranted. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Dong H.V.,Institute of Human Nutrition | Shiau S.,Gertrude rgievsky Center | Yin M.T.,Columbia University
AIDS | Year: 2014

Objective: There is growing evidence that fracture risk is increased in individuals with HIV and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine whether prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of fracture is increased in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A search was performed of Medline, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases, as well as of abstracts from annual retroviral, liver and bone meetings (up to 2013) for studies with bone mineral density (BMD) or bone fracture data for HIV/ HCV-coinfected individuals. Osteoporosis odds ratios (ORs) and fracture incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated from studies with data on HIV-monoinfected or HIV/HCVuninfected comparison groups. Results: Of 15 included studies, nine reported BMD data and six reported fracture data. For HIV/HCV-coinfected, the estimated osteoporosis prevalence was 22% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 12-31] and the crude OR for osteoporosis compared with HIV-monoinfected was 1.63 (95% CI 1.27-2.11). The pooled IRR of overall fracture risk for HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals was 1.77 (95% CI 1.44-2.18) compared with HIV-monoinfected and 2.95 (95% CI 2.17-4.01) compared with uninfected individuals. In addition to HIV/HCV-coinfection, older age, lower BMI, smoking, alcohol and substance use were significant predictors of osteoporosis and fractures across studies. Conclusion: HIV/HCV coinfection is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and fracture than HIV monoinfection; fracture risk is even greater than uninfected controls. These data suggest that HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals should be targeted for fracture prevention through risk factor modification at all ages and DXA screening at age 50. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health.


Kline J.K.,New York State Psychiatric Institute | Kline J.K.,Columbia University | Kline J.K.,Gertrude rgievsky Center | Kinney A.M.,Columbia University | And 4 more authors.
Menopause | Year: 2014

Objective: Premutation and intermediate CGG repeat length at the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) locus have been associated with premature ovarian failure. We tested whether intermediate length is associated with indicators of ovarian age in a sample of fertile women. Our primary measures of ovarian age were antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Methods: The cross-sectional sample comprised 258 women with karyotyped spontaneous abortions (140 trisomic spontaneous abortions and 118 chromosomally normal spontaneous abortions or spontaneous abortions with anomalies other than trisomy) and 325 women with recent live births (LBs). We analyzed data from the total sample and data from LBs only. We defined CGG repeat length by the length (both continuous and categorical) on the longer allele. Results: CGG repeat length was not significantly associated with either hormone measure. A repeat length of 35 to 54 CGG, versus the modal category of 30 CGG, was associated with an approximately 7% increase in median AMH level and a 3% increase in median FSH level. Results were unaltered when analyses were limited to LBs. Analyses of hormone levels using cutpoints to define older ovarian age showed no associations with repeat length. Among 10 women with repeat lengths of 35 to 54 CGG analyzed for AGG sequences, the uninterrupted CGG length was not significantly longer among women with hormonal indicators of "old" versus "young" ovarian age. Conclusions: Our data do not support an association between intermediate CGG repeat length and levels of AMH or FSH among fertile women. © 2014 by The North American Menopause Society.


Meyers T.,University of Witwatersrand | Dramowski A.,University of Cape Town | Schneider H.,University of the Western Cape | Gardiner N.,AURUM Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2012

Background: With widespread availability of pediatric antiretroviral therapy and improved access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), it is important to monitor the impact on pediatric HIV-related hospital admissions and in-hospital mortality in South Africa. Methods: Over a 15-year period, 4 independent surveillance studies were conducted in the pediatric wards at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa (1996, 2005, 2007, and late 2010 to early 2011). Trends in HIV prevalence and HIV-related mortality were evaluated. Results: HIV prevalence was similar during the first 3 periods: 26.2% (1996), 31.7% (2005), and 29.5% (2007) P > 0.10, but was lower in 2010-2011 (19.3%; P = 0.0005). Median age of the children admitted with HIV increased in the latter periods from 9.13 (interquartile range 3.6-28.8) months to 10.0 (3.0-44.5) months (P > 0.10) and 18.0 (6.2-69.8) months (P = 0.048). Median admission weight-for-age z-scores were similar (<-3 SD) for the latter 3 periods. Admission CD4 percentage increased from 0.0% (0.0-9.4) in 2005 to 15.0% (8.2-22.8) in 2007 (P < 0.0001) and was 18.7% (9.6-24.7) in 2010-2011 (P > 0.10). Mortality among all vs. HIV-infected admissions was 63 of 565 (11.2%) and 43 of 179 (24.0%) in 2005, 91 of 1510 (6.0%) and 53 of 440 (12.0%) in 2007, and 18 of 429 (4.2%) and 9 of 73 (12.3%) in 2010-2011. Conclusions: HIV prevalence and mortality among pediatric admissions is decreasing. This is likely a result of improved PMTCT and wider antiretroviral therapy coverage. Continued effort to improve PMTCT coverage and identify and treat younger and older HIV-infected children is required to further reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality. © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Technau K.-G.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Lazarus E.,University of Witwatersrand | Kuhn L.,Gertrude rgievsky Center | Abrams E.J.,Columbia University | And 5 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Concerns about stavudine (d4T) toxicity have led to increased use of abacavir (ABC) in first-line pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens. Field experience with ABC in ART-naïve children is limited. METHODS: Deidentified demographic, clinical and laboratory data on HIV-infected children initiating ART between 2004 and 2011 in a large pediatric HIV treatment program in Johannesburg, South Africa, were used to compare viral suppression at 6 and 12 months by initial treatment regimen, time to suppression (<400 copies/mL) and rebound (>1000 copies/mL after initial suppression). Adjusted logistic regression was used to investigate confounders and calendar effects. RESULTS: Two thousand thirty-six children initiated either d4T/3TC-or ABC/3TC-based first-line regimens in combination with either boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz (EFV). 1634 received d4T regimens (LPV/r n = 672; EFV n = 962) and 402 ABC regimens (LPV/r n = 192; EFV n = 210). At 6 and 12 months on ART, viral suppression rate was poorer in ABC versus d4T groups within both the LPV/r and EFV groups (P < 0.0001 for all points). In ABC groups, time to suppression was significantly slower (log-rank P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0092 for LPV/r-and EFV-based, respectively) and time to rebound after suppression significantly faster (log-rank P = 0.014 and P = 0.0001 for LPV/r-and EFV-based, respectively). Logistic regression confirmed the worse outcomes in the ABC groups even after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSION: Data from this urban pediatric ART service program show significantly poorer virological performance of ABC compared with d4T-based regimens, a signal that urgently warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


Gu Y.,Tarub Institute for Research in Alzheimers Disease and the Aging Brain | Nieves J.W.,Columbia University | Nieves J.W.,Helen Hayes Hospital | Stern Y.,Tarub Institute for Research in Alzheimers Disease and the Aging Brain | And 8 more authors.
Archives of Neurology | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess the association between food combination and Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Because foods are not consumed in isolation, dietary pattern (DP) analysis of food combination, taking into account the interactions among food components, may offer methodological advantages. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Northern Manhattan, New York, New York. Patients or Other Participants: Two thousand one hundred forty-eight community-based elderly subjects (aged ≥65 years) without dementia in New York provided dietary information and were prospectively evaluated with the same standardized neurological and neuropsychological measures approximately every 1.5 years. Using reduced rank regression, we calculated DPs based on their ability to explain variation in 7 potentially AD-related nutrients: saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, vitamin B12, and folate. The associations of reduced rank regression-derived DPs with AD risk were then examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Main Outcome Measure: Incident AD risk. Results: Two hundred fifty-three subjects developed AD during a follow-up of 3.9 years. We identified a DP strongly associated with lower AD risk: compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of adherence to this pattern, the AD hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for subjects in the highest DP tertile was 0.62 (0.43-0.89) after multivariable adjustment (P for trend=.01). This DP was characterized by higher intakes of salad dressing, nuts, fish, tomatoes, poultry, cruciferous vegetables, fruits, and dark and green leafy vegetables and a lower intake of high-fat dairy products, red meat, organ meat, and butter. Conclusion: Simultaneous consideration of previous knowledge regarding potentially AD-related nutrients and multiple food groups can aid in identifying food combinations that are associated with AD risk. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Life Clinic, Queens College, City University of New York, Gertrude rgievsky Center and Columbia University
Type: | Journal: The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2017

To evaluate the impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on neurocognitive function and brain morphology in older adults with depression and cognitive impairment.We prospectively screened OSA with the STOP-Bang questionnaire in the last 25 patients enrolled into the Donepezil Treatment of Cognitive Impairment and Depression (DOTCODE) trial. High and low probability of OSA were defined as a STOP-Bang score of 5 (h-OSA) and of <5 (l-OSA), respectively. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate brain morphology. The initial 16 weeks of antidepressant treatment were part of the DOTCODE trial.After 16 weeks of antidepressant treatment, the h-OSA group performed significantly worse on the Selective Reminding Test delayed recall task than the l-OSA group, controlling for baseline performance (F=19.1, df=1,22, p<0.001). In 19 of 25 participants who underwent brain MRI, the h-OSA group had significantly greater volumes of MRI hyperintensities in deep white matter, periventricular white matter, and subcortical gray matter compared with the l-OSA group. There was no significant association between OSA and hippocampal or entorhinal cortex volumes in our sample, even after controlling for intracranial volume.OSA is associated with impaired verbal episodic memory and microvascular damage in older adults with depression and cognitive impairment. One possibility is that by contributing to cerebral microvascular damage, OSA may exacerbate progressive memory decline.


Wright T.C.,Columbia University | Kuhn L.,Gertrude rgievsky Center
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women living in developing countries, largely because of the failure either to initiate or sustain effective cervical-cancer screening programmes. This potentially preventable and curable cancer continues to cause high mortality among relatively young women residing in low-resource countries. Cytology as a screening test, linked with a robust healthcare infrastructure, has significantly affected cervical cancer prevention in countries that have had sufficient resources to establish and sustain well-conducted programmes. The failure to establish such programmes has stimulated a large body of research into alternative screening tests and approaches to cervical-cancer prevention. Two of the most recent research methods have been visual inspection with acetic acid and molecular testing for high-risk types of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid. Visual inspection with acetic acid has shown a great deal of promise in cross-sectional studies; however, in randomised-controlled trials, it has been shown to be significantly less effective in reducing cervical cancer or its precursors. The development of point-of-care human papillomavirus or other highly sensitive tests for the prevention of cervical cancer is imperative. It has also been clearly shown that linking testing or screening to treatment (so-called 'screen and treat') without the intervention of colposcopy or the need for sophisticated laboratories may potentially prevent cervical cancer in large numbers of women. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Scarmeas N.,Taub Institute for Research in Alzheimers Disease | Scarmeas N.,Gertrude rgievsky Center | Scarmeas N.,Columbia University | Luchsinger J.A.,Taub Institute for Research in Alzheimers Disease | And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Objectives: To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and Alzheimer disease (AD) course. Background: PA has been related to lower risk for AD. Whether PA is associated with subsequent AD course has not been investigated. Methods: In a population-based study of individuals aged 65 years and older in New York who were prospectively followed up with standard neurologic and neuropsychological evaluations (every ∼1.5 years), 357 participants i) were nondemented at baseline and ii) were diagnosed with AD during follow-up (incident AD). PA (sum of participation in a variety of physical activities, weighted by the type of activity [light, moderate, and severe]) obtained 2.4 (standard deviation [SD], 1.9) years before incidence was the main predictor of mortality in Cox models and of cognitive decline in generalized estimating equation models that were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, comorbidities, and duration between PA evaluation and dementia onset. Results: One hundred fifty incident AD cases (54%) died during the course of 5.2 (SD, 4.4) years of follow-up. When compared with incident AD cases who were physically inactive, those with some PA had lower mortality risk, whereas incident AD participants with much PA had an even lower risk. Additional adjustments for apolipoprotein genotype, smoking, comorbidity index, and cognitive performance did not change the associations. PA did not affect rates of cognitive or functional decline. Conclusion: Exercise may affect not only risk for AD but also subsequent disease duration: more PA is associated with prolonged survival in AD. © 2011 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry.

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