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Gal G.,Gertner Institute for Epidemiology | Gal G.,The Academic College of Tel-Aviv-Yaffo | Levav I.,Mental Health Services | Gross R.,Gertner Institute for Epidemiology | Gross R.,Tel Aviv University
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease | Year: 2011

Childhood and adolescence abuse is a risk factor for later psychopathology. We examined the association between the age when sexual (SA) and physical (PA) abuse first occurred and mood and anxiety disorders and their respective age of onset, emotional distress, and sleep disturbances. Data were gathered from the Israel-based component of the World Mental Health Survey (N = 4859). Abuse was elicited by direct questions. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, emotional distress with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and sleep disturbances by self-report. Multivariate analyses indicated an increased risk for psychopathology among subjects who reported childhood SA and PA. SA was associated with lifetime mood (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7) and anxiety (OR = 2.3) disorders; PA with lifetime anxiety disorder (OR = 2.8); and any abuse with increased risk for lifetime mood (OR = 1.7) and 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 1.8). Earlier onset of SA or PA was associated with increased risk for later psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Carroll R.J.,Texas A&M University | Midthune D.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Subar A.F.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Shumakovich M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1-12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America's Table Study (1997-1998), the authors found that 4-6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2-4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4-6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ. © 2012 The Author. Source

Freedman L.S.,Gertner Institute for Epidemiology | Kipnis V.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Schatzkin A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Tasevska N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Potischman N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute
Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations | Year: 2010

Identifying diet-disease relationships in nutritional cohort studies is plagued by the measurement error in self-reported intakes. The authors propose using biomarkers known to be correlated with dietary intake, so as to strengthen analyses of diet-disease hypotheses. The authors consider combining self-reported intakes and biomarker levels using principal components, Howe's method, or a joint statistical test of effects in a bivariate model. They compared the statistical power of these methods with that of conventional univariate analyses of self-reported intake or of biomarker level. They used computer simulation of different disease risk models, with input parameters based on data from the literature on the relationship between lutein intake and age-related macular degeneration. The results showed that if the dietary effect on disease was fully mediated through the biomarker level, then the univariate analysis of the biomarker was the most powerful approach. However, combination methods, particularly principal components and Howe's method, were not greatly inferior in this situation, and were as good as, or better than, univariate biomarker analysis if mediation was only partial or non-existent. In some circumstances sample size requirements were reduced to 20-50% of those required for conventional analyses of self-reported intake. The authors conclude that (i) including biomarker data in addition to the usual dietary data in a cohort could greatly strengthen the investigation of diet-disease relationships, and (ii) when the extent of mediation through the biomarker is unknown, use of principal components or Howe's method appears a good strategy. © 2010 Freedman et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Davidson S.,Rabin Medical Center | Davidson S.,Tel Aviv University | Natan D.,Maccabi Healthcare Services | Novikov I.,Gertner Institute for Epidemiology | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background & aims: The risk of childhood obesity, an increasingly prevalent problem worldwide, might be predictable by early body mass index measurements. This study sought to develop body mass index and weight-for-length ratio references for infants born at 33-42 weeks gestation and to validate these data against the growth curves of the World Health Organization Multicenter Growth Reference Study. Methods: Data were collected from the Neonatal Registry of Rabin Medical Center for all healthy singleton babies born live at 33-42 weeks gestation. Crude and smoothed reference tables and graphs for body mass index and weight-for-length ratio by gestational age were created for males and females, separately. Results: Birth weight, length, and body mass index percentiles for full-term neonates were similar to the World Health Organization study, reinforcing the generalizability of our reference charts for infants born at 33-42 weeks. Cutoff values for small for date (<5th, <10th percentile) and large for date (>85th, >95th percentile) infants differed across gestational ages in both pre-term and full-term infants. Conclusions: As body proportionality indexes provide an assessment of body mass and fatness relative to length, we suggest that BMI and Wt/L ratio percentiles be added to weight and length growth curves as a routine intrauterine growth assessment at birth. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Source

Eshed I.,Tel Aviv University | Rimon U.,Tel Aviv University | Novikov I.,Gertner Institute for Epidemiology | Goitein O.,Tel Aviv University | Konen E.,Tel Aviv University
Acta Radiologica | Year: 2011

Background: Standard bolus chase MR angiography (MRA) is increasingly replacing digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the diagnostic evaluation of peripheral vascular disease. However, a major limitation of bolus chase MRA is the relatively poor visibility of the calf arteries. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of visualizing the calf arteries and the visibility quality of an 8-channel cardiac phased array coil using time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) MRA compared with standard bolus chase MRA on a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Material and Methods: MRA findings of 59 sequential patients (mean age 57.8 years, range 14-83 years; 41 men) were retrospectively evaluated. All examinations included preliminary TRICKS for the lower leg using a surface 8-channel cardiac coil, followed by a 3-step MRA of the abdominal aorta, thigh, and lower leg using a body coil. Images yielded by both methods were separately evaluated by consensus of two radiologists unaware of the patients' clinical data. Visibility of the calf arteries (popliteal, tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, tibioperoneal trunk, and peroneal) for both sides was subjectively classified as 'diagnostic' or 'nondiagnostic'. Descriptive statistics for image diagnostic quality were assessed. Results: A total of 575 calf arterial segments were evaluated. Visibility of all calf arteries was significantly better with TRICKS than with the standard bolus chase MRA (P <0.001). The improvement of calf artery visibility with TRICKS was more pronounced in patients with peripheral vascular disease compared to those with arteritis, vascular malformation and popliteal entrapment syndrome. Conclusion: Using a cardiac coil for MRA of the lower extremities resulted in visibility comparable to that of a dedicated leg coil, with diagnostic superiority for the TRICKS method compared to the standard bolus chase method. Source

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