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Mozaner Bordin D.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Alves M.N.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Cabrices O.G.,GERSTEL Inc. | De Campos E.G.,University of Sao Paulo | De Martinis B.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Drug abuse by pregnant women is considered a serious public health problem worldwide. Meconium is the first excretion in newborns and has been used as an alternative matrix to evaluate in utero drug exposure. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is widely employed to prepare and clean up samples in the field of forensic analysis. Most SPE products require large volumes of solvent, which culminates in longer sample processing times and increased cost per sample. Disposable pipette extraction (DPX) tips have been used as an alternative to traditional SPE cartridges. They combine efficient and rapid extraction with reduced solvent consumption. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method to determine nicotine, cotinine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and methyl ester anhydroecgonine in meconium using DPX and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Validation results indicated that extraction efficiency ranged 50-98%, accuracy 92-106%, intra-assay precision 4-12% and inter-assay precision 6-12%. Linear calibration curves resulted in R2 values >0.99, limits of detection ranged from 2.5 to 15 ng/g and the limit of quantitation from 10 to 20 ng/g. The DPX- GC-MS method was shown to selectively analyze trace concentrations of drugs in meconium samples. Finally, the developed and validated method was applied to 50 meconium samples. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source


Risticevic S.,University of Waterloo | Chen Y.,Supelco | Kudlejova L.,University of Waterloo | Vatinno R.,University of Waterloo | And 4 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2010

Ever since the invention of gas chromatography (GC), numerous efforts within the chromatographic community have been directed toward the development of fast GC methods. However, the developments in high-speed GC technologies have simultaneously created demand for the availability of compatible detection and sample preparation methods, so that the speed of the overall analytical process is increased. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) is a sample preparation technique developed to address the need for rapid sample preparation. Therefore, the objective of this protocol is to outline recent developments in SPME technology that can be applied toward high-throughput automated qualitative and quantitative analyses of volatile and semivolatile compounds in wine samples. The use of this protocol facilitates routine high-throughput determinations of 200-500 analytes of different physicochemical properties with SPME step requiring only 10-15 min per sample. © 2009 Nature Publishing Group. Source


Pfannkoch E.A.,GERSTEL Inc. | Stuff J.R.,GERSTEL Inc. | Whitecavage J.A.,GERSTEL Inc. | Blevins J.M.,Public Health Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Method NMFS-NWFSC-59 2004 is currently used to quantitatively analyze seafood for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, especially following events such as the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion that released millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This method has limited throughput capacity; hence, alternative methods are necessary to meet analytical demands after such events. Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) is an effective technique to extract trace PAHs in water and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction strategy effectively extracts PAHs from complex food matrices. This study uses SBSE to concentrate PAHs and eliminate matrix interference from QuEChERS extracts of seafood, specifically oysters, fish, and shrimp. This method provides acceptable recovery (65-138%) linear calibrations and is sensitive (LOD = 0.02 ppb, LOQ = 0.06 ppb) while providing higher throughput and maintaining equivalency between NOAA 2004 as determined by analysis of NIST SRM 1974b mussel tissue. © 2015 Edward A. Pfannkoch et al. Source

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