GeroScience Inc.

MD, United States

GeroScience Inc.

MD, United States
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Ingram D.K.,Louisiana State University | Roth G.S.,GeroScience Inc.
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2015

Strong consensus exists regarding the most robust environmental intervention for attenuating aging processes and increasing healthspan and lifespan: calorie restriction (CR). Over several decades, this paradigm has been replicated in numerous nonhuman models, and has been expanded over the last decade to formal, controlled human studies of CR. Given that long-term CR can create heavy challenges to compliance in human diets, the concept of a calorie restriction mimetic (CRM) has emerged as an active research area within gerontology. In past presentations on this subject, we have proposed that a CRM is a compound that mimics metabolic, hormonal, and physiological effects of CR, activates stress response pathways observed in CR and enhances stress protection, produces CR-like effects on longevity, reduces age-related disease, and maintains more youthful function, all without significantly reducing food intake, at least initially. Over 16 years ago, we proposed that glycolytic inhibition could be an effective strategy for developing CRM. The main argument here is that inhibiting energy utilization as far upstream as possible provides the highest chance of generating a broad spectrum of CR-like effects when compared to targeting a singular molecular target downstream. As an initial candidate CRM, 2-deoxyglucose, a known anti-glycolytic, was shown to produce a remarkable phenotype of CR, but further investigation found that this compound produced cardiotoxicity in rats at the doses we had been using. There remains interest in 2DG as a CRM but at lower doses. Beyond the proposal of 2DG as a candidate CRM, the field has grown steadily with many investigators proposing other strategies, including novel anti-glycolytics. Within the realm of upstream targeting at the level of the digestive system, research has included bariatric surgery, inhibitors of fat digestion/absorption, and inhibitors of carbohydrate digestion. Research focused on downstream sites has included insulin receptors, IGF-1 receptors, sirtuin activators, inhibitors of mTOR, and polyamines. In the current review we discuss progress made involving these various strategies and comment on the status and future for each within this exciting research field. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Stenholm S.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Stenholm S.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | Metter E.J.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Roth G.S.,GeroScience Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research | Year: 2011

Background and aims: Caloric restriction (CR) is the most robust and reproducible intervention for slowing aging, and maintaining health and vitality in animals. Previous studies found that CR is associated with changes in specific biomarkers in monkeys that were also associated with reduced risk of mortality in healthy men. In this study we examine the association between other potential biomarkers related to CR and extended lifespan in healthy humans. Methods: Based on the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, "long-lived" participants who survived to at least 90 years of age (n=41, cases) were compared with "short-lived" participants who died between 72-76 years of age (n=31, controls) in the nested case control study. Circulating levels of ghrelin, insulin, leptin, interleukin 6, adiponectin and testosterone were measured from samples collected between the ages 58 to 70 years. Baseline differences between groups were examined with t-test or Wilcoxon test, and mixed effects general linear model was used for a logistic model to differentiate the two groups with multiple measurements on some subjects. Results: At the time of biomarkers evaluation (58-70 yrs), none of the single biomarker levels was significantly different between the two groups. However, after combining information from multiple biomarkers by adding the z-transformed values, the global score differentiated the long- and short-lived participants (p=0.05). Conclusions: In their sixties, long-lived and short-lived individuals do not differ in biomarkers that have been associated with CR in animals. However, difference between the groups was only obtained when multiple biomarker dysregulation was considered. ©2011, Editrice Kurtis.


Urbanski H.F.,Oregon Health And Science University | Urbanski H.F.,GeroScience Inc. | Urbanski H.F.,Louisiana State University | Mattison J.A.,Oregon Health And Science University | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2013

The adrenal steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), is generally regarded as being a reliable endocrine marker of aging, because in humans and nonhuman primates its circulating concentrations are very high during young adulthood, and the concentrations then decline markedly during aging. Despite promising results from early studies, we were recently surprised to find that caloric restriction (CR) did little to prevent or delay the decline of DHEAS concentrations in old rhesus macaques. Here we summarize the use of circulating DHEAS concentrations as a biomarker of aging in CR studies and suggest reasons for its limited value. Although DHEAS can reliably predict aging in animals maintained on a standard diet, dietary manipulations may affect liver enzymes involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones. Consequently, in CR studies the reliability of using DHEAS as a biomarker of aging may be compromised. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Smith D.L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Mattison J.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Desmond R.A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Gardner J.P.,Rutgers University | And 5 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

The role of telomere attrition in limiting the replicative capacity of cells in culture is well established. In humans, epidemiologic evidence suggests telomere length (TL) in leukocytes is highly variable at birth and inversely related to age. Although calorie restriction (CR) significantly increases life span in most rodent models, its association with TL is unknown. Using linear regression analysis, TLs (as measured by Southern blot analysis) of skeletal muscle (a postmitotic tissue that largely represents early development TL), fat, leukocytes, and skin were tested for effects of age, sex, and diet in 48 control and 23 calorie restriction rhesus monkeys. After controlling for the individual's muscle mean TL, differences between leukocytes muscle and skin muscle were significantly associated with age (p =. 002; p =. 002) and sex (p =. 003; p =. 042), but not calorie restriction (p =. 884; p =. 766). Despite an age-dependent shortening of TL in leukocytes and skin, calorie restriction did not significantly affect TL dynamics in these samples. © 2011 The Author.


Roth G.S.,GeroScience Inc. | Ingram D.K.,Louisiana State University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2015

After nearly a century of rigorous investigation and testing, dietary caloric restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reproducible method for slowing aging and maintaining health, function, and vitality. This intervention has been applied to species across the evolutionary spectrum, but for a number of reasons, practical applicability to humans has been questioned. To overcome these issues, we initiated the field of CR mimetics in 1998 and have observed its development into a full-fledged antiaging industry. Basically, strategies that enable individuals to obtain the biological benefits of CR without reducing actual food intake can be considered CR mimetics, whether functional, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, or other. Some of the best known candidates include resveratrol and related agents, the antidiabetic drug metformin, and rapamycin and other mTOR regulators. While the mechanisms of action vary, these and essentially all CR mimetic candidates work through at least some of the same pathways as actual CR. While the entire field continues to evolve rapidly, the current status will be reviewed here, with particular focus on recent developments, the most practical relevance and applicability for potential consumers, and new strategies for the future. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.


Ingram D.K.,Pennington Biomedical Research Center | Roth G.S.,GeroScience Inc.
Experimental Gerontology | Year: 2011

Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust environmental intervention for altering aging processes and increasing healthspan and lifespan. Emerging from progress made in many nonhuman models, current research has expanded to formal, controlled human studies of CR. Since long-term CR requires a major commitment of will power and long-term negative consequences remain to be determined, the concept of a calorie restriction mimetic (CRM) has become a new area of investigation within gerontology. We have proposed that a CRM is a compound that mimics metabolic, hormonal, and physiological effects of CR, activates stress response pathways observed in CR and enhances stress protection, produces CR-like effects on longevity, reduces age-related disease, and maintains more youthful function, all without significantly reducing food intake. Over 12. years ago, we introduced the concept of glycolytic inhibition as a strategy for developing mimetics of CR. We have argued that inhibiting energy utilization as far upstream as possible might offer a broader range of CR-like effects as opposed to targeting a singular molecular target downstream. As the first candidate CRM, 2-deoxyglucose, a known anti-glycolytic, provided a remarkable phenotype of CR, but turned out to produce cardiotoxicity in rats. Since the introduction of 2DG as a candidate CRM, many different targets for development have now been proposed at more downstream sites, including insulin receptor sensitizers, sirtuin activators, and inhibitors of mTOR. This review discusses these various strategies to assess their current status and future potential for this emerging research field. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Smith D.L.,Clinical Nutrition Research Center | Elam C.F.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Mattison J.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Lane M.A.,MedImmune LLC | And 4 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

Calorie restriction (CR) has been known for more than 70 years to extend life span and delay disease in rodent models. Metformin administration in rodent disease models has been shown to delay cancer incidence and progression, reduce cardiovascular disease and extend life span. To more directly test the potential of metformin supplementation (300 mg/kg/day) as a CR mimetic, life-span studies were performed in Fischer-344 rats and compared with ad libitum feeding and CR (30%). The CR group had significantly reduced food intake and body weight throughout the study. Body weight was significantly reduced in the metformin group compared with control during the middle of the study, despite similar weekly food intake. Although CR significantly extended early life span (25th quantile), metformin supplementation did not significantly increase life span at any quantile (25th, 50th, 75th, or 90th), overall or maximum life span (p >. 05) compared with control. © 2010 The Author.


Minor R.K.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Smith Jr. D.L.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Sossong A.M.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Kaushik S.,Yeshiva University | And 8 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2010

Calorie restriction (CR), the purposeful reduction of energy intake with maintenance of adequate micronutrient intake, is well known to extend the lifespan of laboratory animals. Compounds like 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) that can recapitulate the metabolic effects of CR are of great interest for their potential to extend lifespan. 2DG treatment has been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits for treating cancer and seizures. 2DG has also recapitulated some hallmarks of the CR phenotype including reduced body temperature and circulating insulin in short-term rodent trials, but one chronic feeding study in rats found toxic effects. The present studies were performed to further explore the long-term effects of 2DG in vivo. First we demonstrate that 2DG increases mortality of male Fischer-344 rats. Increased incidence of pheochromocytoma in the adrenal medulla was also noted in the 2DG treated rats. We reconfirm the cardiotoxicity of 2DG in a 6-week follow-up study evaluating male Brown Norway rats and a natural form of 2DG in addition to again examining effects in Fischer-344 rats and the original synthetic 2DG. High levels of both 2DG sources reduced weight gain secondary to reduced food intake in both strains. Histopathological analysis of the hearts revealed increasing vacuolarization of cardiac myocytes with dose, and tissue staining revealed the vacuoles were free of both glycogen and lipid. We did, however, observe higher expression of both cathepsin D and LC3 in the hearts of 2DG-treated rats which indicates an increase in autophagic flux. Although a remarkable CR-like phenotype can be reproduced with 2DG treatment, the ultimate toxicity of 2DG seriously challenges 2DG as a potential CR mimetic in mammals and also raises concerns about other therapeutic applications of the compound.


Methods of maintaining and/or attenuating a decline in the quality of life of a mammal comprising the step of administering to the mammal a composition comprising an effective amount of mannoheptulose wherein the effective amount of mannoheptulose provides a dosage to the mammal on a daily basis from about 0.001 gram per kilogram of body weight of the mammal to about 1 gram per kilogram of body weight of the mammal.


PubMed | GeroScience Inc. and Louisiana State University
Type: | Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2016

After nearly a century of rigorous investigation and testing, dietary caloric restriction (CR) remains the most robust and reproducible method for slowing aging and maintaining health, function, and vitality. This intervention has been applied to species across the evolutionary spectrum, but for a number of reasons, practical applicability to humans has been questioned. To overcome these issues, we initiated the field of CR mimetics in 1998 and have observed its development into a full-fledged antiaging industry. Basically, strategies that enable individuals to obtain the biological benefits of CR without reducing actual food intake can be considered CR mimetics, whether functional, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, or other. Some of the best known candidates include resveratrol and related agents, the antidiabetic drug metformin, and rapamycin and other mTOR regulators. While the mechanisms of action vary, these and essentially all CR mimetic candidates work through at least some of the same pathways as actual CR. While the entire field continues to evolve rapidly, the current status will be reviewed here, with particular focus on recent developments, the most practical relevance and applicability for potential consumers, and new strategies for the future.

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