San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy

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Santamato A.,University of Foggia | Micello M.F.,University of Foggia | Ranieri M.,University of Foggia | Valeno G.,University of Foggia | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences | Year: 2015

Spasticity is a common disabling symptom for several neurological conditions. Botulinum toxin type A injection represents the gold standard treatment for focal spasticity with efficacy, reversibility, and low prevalence of complications. Current guidelines suggest a dose up to 600 units (U) of onabotulinumtoxinA/ incobotulinumtoxinA or up to 1500 U of abobotulinumtoxinA to treat post-stroke spasticity to avoid important adverse effects. However, recently, higher doses of botulinum toxin type A were employed, especially in case of upper and lower limb severe spasticity. With searches of US National Library of Medicine databases, we identified all studies published from December 1989 to July 2014 concerning the use of higher doses of this neurotoxin for spasticity treatment with at least a dose of 600 U of onabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA or 1800 U of abobotulinumtoxinA. The cumulative body of evidence coming from the eight studies selected suggested that higher doses of botulinum toxin type A appeared to be efficacious in reducing spasticity of the upper and lower limbs after stroke, with adverse effects generally mild. However, further investigations are needed to determine the safety and reproducibility in larger case series or randomized clinical trials of higher doses of botulinum toxin type A also after repeated injections. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Seripa D.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | D'Onofrio G.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Panza F.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Cascavilla L.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Rejuvenation Research | Year: 2011

The genetic origin of the three common variants of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) protein, known as E2, E3 and E4, was understood in 1981, and since the mid 1980s these are probably the most-studied protein variants in human races. They have been related to a number of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer disease, as well as to healthy aging and longevity. The gene variants underlying these protein isoforms, known as ε2, ε3, and ε4, are allelic forms of the APOE gene, resulting from different haplotypes at the APOE locus (19q13.31). In particular, they result from three of the four haplotypes expected by the combinations of the alleles of the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs429358 and rs7412. The fourth missing haplotype, known as ε3r, has been identified in only two Caucasian families from Italy and in one Yoruba family from Nigeria worldwide. Thus, this fourth APOE gene variant is rare, and it encodes a protein isoform, identified as E3r, showing identical physical characteristics to E3, that conversely, is the most common form of apoE in humans. In this review article, we report the identification of the haplotype ε3r in a third Caucasian family from Italy, and then attempt to re-examine the current knowledge regarding the APOE polymorphism, taking into account this fourth haplotype. We also focus on the commonly accepted hypothesis for the evolution of the common APOE gene variants, in which we include the ε3r haplotype, previously not considered. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | University of Foggia, Health Science University, Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory and University of Bari
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the neurological sciences | Year: 2015

Spasticity is a common disabling symptom for several neurological conditions. Botulinum toxin type A injection represents the gold standard treatment for focal spasticity with efficacy, reversibility, and low prevalence of complications. Current guidelines suggest a dose up to 600 units (U) of onabotulinumtoxinA/incobotulinumtoxinA or up to 1,500 U of abobotulinumtoxinA to treat post-stroke spasticity to avoid important adverse effects. However, recently, higher doses of botulinum toxin type A were employed, especially in case of upper and lower limb severe spasticity. With searches of US National Library of Medicine databases, we identified all studies published from December 1989 to July 2014 concerning the use of higher doses of this neurotoxin for spasticity treatment with at least a dose of 600 U of onabotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA or 1,800 U of abobotulinumtoxinA. The cumulative body of evidence coming from the eight studies selected suggested that higher doses of botulinum toxin type A appeared to be efficacious in reducing spasticity of the upper and lower limbs after stroke, with adverse effects generally mild. However, further investigations are needed to determine the safety and reproducibility in larger case series or randomized clinical trials of higher doses of botulinum toxin type A also after repeated injections.


Pilotto A.,Eo Galliera Hospital | Pilotto A.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Sancarlo D.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Pellegrini F.,Unit of Biostatistics | And 4 more authors.
Age and Ageing | Year: 2016

Background: prediction of length of stay (LOS) may be useful to optimise care plans to reduce the negative outcomes related to hospitalisation. Objective: to evaluate whether the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), may predict LOS in hospitalised older patients. Design: prospective multicentre cohort study. Setting: twenty Geriatrics Units. Participants: patients aged 65 and older consecutively admitted to Geriatrics Units. Measurement: at admission, the CGA-based MPI was calculated by using a validated algorithm that included information on basal and instrumental activities of daily living, cognitive status, nutritional status, the risk of pressures sores, co-morbidity, number of drugs and co-habitation status. According to validated cut-offs, subjects were divided into three groups of risk, i.e. MPI-1 low risk (value ≤0.33), MPI-2 moderate risk (value 0.34-0.66) and MPI-3 severe risk of mortality (value ≥0.67). Results: two thousand and thirty-three patients were included; 1,159 were women (57.0%). Age- and sex-adjusted mean LOS in patients divided according to the MPI grade was MPI-1 = 10.1 (95% CI 8.6-11.8), MPI-2 = 12.47 (95% CI 10.7-14.68) and MPI-3 = 13.41 (95% CI 11.5-15.7) days (P for trend <0.001). The overall accuracy of the MPI to predict LOS was good (C-statistic 0.74, 95% CI 0.72-0.76). Moreover, a statistically significant trend of LOS means was found even in patients stratified according to their International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) main diagnosis. Conclusions: the MPI is an accurate predictor of LOS in older patients hospitalised with the most frequent diseases. © The Author 2016.


Pilotto A.,S Antonio Hospital | Pilotto A.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Panza F.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Sancarlo D.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2012

In older patients, given the central role of prognosis in clinical decision-making, there is an urgent need to develop accurate, validated, and rigorously tested prognostic indices. Current data suggest that in older patients not only physical but also psychological, cognitive, functional, nutritional, biological, and social factors may contribute to the increased risk of negative outcomes including institutionalization, hospital-ization, and mortality. Recently, a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), derived from a standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment that included information from eight domains, i.e. basal and instrumental activities of daily living, cognitive and nutritional status, the risk for pressure sores, comorbidi-ties, drug use, and co-habitation status was effective in predicting short- and long-term all-cause mortality risk in hospitalized patients with various acute and chronic conditions, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a consecutive cohort of patients with CKD the MPI accuracy in predicting mortality was significantly higher than the accuracy of the estimated glo-merular filtration rate (eGFR). More recently, findings from hospital-based cohorts suggest that adding MPI information to the eGFR markedly improved the prediction of two-year all-cause mortality in older patients with CKD. While further studies are needed to assess the potential usefulness of this prognostic tool in clinical practice, a multidimensional assessment for all-cause mortality risk prediction should be considered in older patients with CKD. These findings support the concept that considering multidimensional aggregate information is very important for predicting short- and long-term all-cause mortality in older subjects with CKD, and that it may be important for the identification of more suitable management of these patients. © 2012 Società Italiana di Nefrologia.


Pilotto A.,S Antonio Hospital | Pilotto A.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Sancarlo D.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Aucella F.,Nephrology Unit and Dialysis Center | And 7 more authors.
Rejuvenation Research | Year: 2012

Current prognostic scores of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not accurate in older patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) in comparison with and in addition to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to predict long-term all-cause mortality in hospitalized older patients with CKD. In a prospective cohort study with a mean follow-up of 2 years, we calculated eGFR according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study and collected information on functional, cognitive, nutritional, co-morbidities, drug use, and co-habitation status to calculate the MPI on 1,198 patients aged ≥65 years with a diagnosis of CKD from an hospital-based sample. The all-cause mortality incidence rate for 100 person-years was 18.3 (men 22.7 vs. women 15.3, p<0.0001). Adding the MPI to the eGFR model significantly improved all-cause mortality prediction accuracy: The C-index increased from 0.579 to 0.648 (p<0.0001), with correct reclassification of 25.9% of patients (Net Reclassification Improvement [NRI], 0.259, p<0.0001; Integrated Discrimination Improvement [IDI], 3.8%, p<0.0001). The correct reclassification was higher in patients who did not die (259/741 patients, reclassification rate=34.9%) than in patients who died (62/457 patients, reclassification rate=13.6%). Conversely, adding the eGFR to the MPI model seems to improve prediction accuracy less consistently. In fact, the C-index increased, but not significantly (from 0.639 to 0.648, p=0.444), with correct reclassification of 5.8% of patients (NRI, 0.058, p=0.012; IDI, 0.009, p=0.001), suggesting a small, although significant improvement. Adding MPI information to the eGFR markedly improved the prediction of 2-year all-cause mortality in older patients with CKD. A multidimensional evaluation for all-cause mortality risk prediction should be considered in older patients with CKD. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | U.S. National Institute on Aging, Unit of Biostatistics, University of Ferrara, Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Age and ageing | Year: 2016

prediction of length of stay (LOS) may be useful to optimise care plans to reduce the negative outcomes related to hospitalisation.to evaluate whether the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), may predict LOS in hospitalised older patients.prospective multicentre cohort study.twenty Geriatrics Units.patients aged 65 and older consecutively admitted to Geriatrics Units.at admission, the CGA-based MPI was calculated by using a validated algorithm that included information on basal and instrumental activities of daily living, cognitive status, nutritional status, the risk of pressures sores, co-morbidity, number of drugs and co-habitation status. According to validated cut-offs, subjects were divided into three groups of risk, i.e. MPI-1 low risk (value 0.33), MPI-2 moderate risk (value 0.34-0.66) and MPI-3 severe risk of mortality (value 0.67).two thousand and thirty-three patients were included; 1,159 were women (57.0%). Age- and sex-adjusted mean LOS in patients divided according to the MPI grade was MPI-1 = 10.1 (95% CI 8.6-11.8), MPI-2 = 12.47 (95% CI 10.7-14.68) and MPI-3 = 13.41 (95% CI 11.5-15.7) days (P for trend <0.001). The overall accuracy of the MPI to predict LOS was good (C-statistic 0.74, 95% CI 0.72-0.76). Moreover, a statistically significant trend of LOS means was found even in patients stratified according to their International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) main diagnosis.the MPI is an accurate predictor of LOS in older patients hospitalised with the most frequent diseases.


PubMed | Health Directorate, Eo Galliera Hospital, University of Bari, Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Older adults are often excluded from clinical trials. Decision making for administration of statins to older patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is under debate, particularly in frail older patients with comorbidity and high mortality risk. We tested the hypothesis that statin treatment in older patients with DM was differentially effective across strata of mortality risk assessed by the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), based on information collected with the Standardized Multidimensional Assessment Schedule for Adults and Aged Persons (SVaMA).In this retrospective observational study, we estimated the mortality risk in 1712 community-dwelling subjects with DM 65 years who underwent a SVaMA evaluation to establish accessibility to homecare services/nursing home admission from 2005 to 2013 in the Padova Health District, Italy. Mild (MPI-SVaMA-1), moderate (MPI-SVaMA-2), and high (MPI-SVaMA-3) risk of mortality at baseline and propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of three-year mortality were calculated according to statin treatment.Higher MPI-SVaMA scores were associated with lower rates of statin treatment (MPI-SVaMA-1 = 39% vs MPI-SVaMA-2 = 36% vs MPI-SVaMA-3 = 24.9%. p<0.001) and higher three-year mortality (MPI-SVaMA-1 = 12.9% vs MPI-SVaMA-2 = 24% vs MPI-SVaMA-3 = 34.4%, p<0.001). After adjustment for propensity score quintiles, statin treatment was significantly associated with lower three-year mortality irrespective of MPI-SVaMA group (interaction test p = 0.303). HRs [95% confidence interval (CI)] were 0.19 (0.14-0.27), 0.28 (0.21-0.36), and 0.26 (0.20-0.34) in the MPI-SVaMA-1, MPI-SVaMA-2, and MPI-SVaMA-3 groups, respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that statin treatment was also beneficial irrespective of age. HRs (95% CI) were 0.21 (0.15-0.31), 0.26 (0.20-0.33), and 0.26 (0.20-0.35) among patients aged 65-74, 75-84, and 85 years, respectively (interaction test p=0.812).Statin treatment was significantly associated with reduced three-year mortality independently of age and multidimensional impairment in community-dwelling frail older patients with DM.


Panza F.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory | Solfrizzi V.,University of Bari | Logroscino G.,University of Bari | Maggi S.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

In the last decade, cumulative epidemiological evidence suggested that vascular- and metabolic-based risk factors may be important in the development of mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Epidemiological and basic research have also proposed a model of cognitive impairment linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic disorders, suggesting for research purposes a "metabolic-cognitive syndrome" (MCS) in patients with MetS plus cognitive impairment of degenerative or vascular origin. In particular, MetS has been associated with the risk of age-related cognitive decline and vascular dementia, but contrasting findings also existed on the possible role of MetS in overall dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Among metabolic determinants of cognitive impairment, a better approach to the understanding of mechanisms could be to hypothesize a continuum leading to various degrees of late-life cognitive disorders in older subjects with metabolic-based risk factors. The MCS model could help us to explain the complex relationship between metabolic disorders and cognitive disturbances and the boundaries between normal and pathological conditions, with a better understanding of clinical and neuropathological features of these metabolic-based cognitive disorders. Strategies toward early and effective risk factor management could be of value in reducing the risk of MCS, so delaying the onset or preventing the progression of predementia syndromes. In the near future, clinical trials could be undertaken to determine if addressing MetS and metabolic-based risk factors, including inflammation, through lifestyle modification holds out the possibility of slowing down or ameliorating the cognitive aging process itself. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Frisardi V.,Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

Apolipoprotein E [ApoE, APOE (gene)] is a multifunctional protein of the lipid and lipoprotein transport system mainly involved in metabolism of dietary lipids. Its polymorphic variants are considered a genetic risk factor of cognitive impairment in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Lewy body dementia, Huntington's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, as well as in vascular dementia and cerebrovascular disease. The precise mechanism by which APOE affects neurodegeneration is still unclear. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated an influence of APOE on metabolic parameters but, to the best of our knowledge, no data are available about the exact role in humans of the effect of APOE on metabolic-cognitive syndrome (MCS). The latter is a model of cognitive impairment linked to metabolic syndrome identifying a grey zone between metabolic disorders and neuropathological process driving late-life cognitive decline. Although it may be a daring project that does not reach a final conclusion because of disease complexity, I hope to elucidate whether APOE may have a prominent role in MCS, going beyond the simple addition of separate mechanisms already known. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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