Germplasm Exchange Unit

Delhi, India

Germplasm Exchange Unit

Delhi, India
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Jacob S.R.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Tyagi V.,Germplasm Exchange Unit | Agrawal A.,Tissue Culture and Cryopreservation Unit | Chakrabarty S.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Tyagi R.K.,ICAR National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR) in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG) centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS) on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India) in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607) are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73%) have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV) as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744) of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More importantly, about 50% of the Indian-origin accessions deposited in SGSV are traditional varieties or landraces with defined traits which form the backbone of any crop gene pool. This paper is also attempting to correlate the global data on Indian-origin germplasm with the national germplasm export profile. The analysis from this paper is discussed with the perspective of possible implications in the access and benefit sharing regime of both the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the newly enforced Nagoya Protocol under the Convention on Biological Diversity. © 2015 Jacob et al.

Soren K.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Ali K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Tyagi V.,Germplasm Exchange Unit | Tyagi A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Rice is an ideal plant species for genomic studies for its relative small genome size (∼430 Mb), diploid origin (2x=24) and close relationship with other important crops. Rice has been grown under diverse ecological conditions and gets exposed to different environmental stresses like drought, salinity, cold, etc. Drought is generally avoided in irrigated rice production system but it is more prone to 63.5 mha of rainfed rice grown annually in different parts of world. Severe osmotic stress causes detrimental changes in cellular components. Yet in response to various environmental stresses, plants have developed different physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt stress conditions, such as, stress associated changes in metabolites and amino acids (proline), amines (glycin-betaine and polyamines), and variety of sugar and sugar alcohols (manitol and trehalose). There is also activation of cascade of molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction and the expression of specific stress related genes. To understand these genetically complex mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance, an integrated approach of molecular breeding, classical physiology and conventional breeding is necessary, and the present review is an effort to deal these issues.

Iquebal M.A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sarika,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Arora V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Verma N.,Germplasm Exchange Unit | And 2 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Background: The cultivated tomato is second most consumed vegetable of the world and is an important part of a diverse and balanced diet as a rich source of vitamins, minerals, phenolic antioxidants and antioxidant lycopene having anti-cancer properties. To reap benefit of genomics of the domestic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) unravelled by Tomato Genome Consortium (The Tomato Genome Consortium, 2012), the bulk mining of its markers in totality is imperative and critically required. The solgenomics has limited number of microsatellite DNA markers (2867) pertaining to solanaceae family. As these markers are of linkage map having relative distance, the choice of selected markers based on absolute distance as of physical map is missing. Only limited microsatellite markers with limitations are reported for variety identification thus there is a need for more markers supplementing DUS test and also for traceability of product in global market.Description: We present here the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of tomato, TomSatDB (Tomato MicroSatellite Database) with more than 1.4 million markers mined in-silico, using MIcroSAtellite (MISA) tool. To cater the customized needs of wet lab, features with a novelty of an automated primer designing tool is added. TomSatDB (, a user-friendly and freely accessible tool offers chromosome wise as well as location wise search of primers. It is an online relational database based on " three-tier architecture" that catalogues information of microsatellites in MySQL and user-friendly interface developed using PHP (Hypertext Pre Processor).Conclusion: Besides abiotic stress, tomato is known to have biotic stress due to its susceptibility over 200 diseases caused by pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes. These markers are expected to pave the way of germplasm management over abiotic and biotic stress as well as improvement through molecular breeding, leading to increased tomato productivity in India as well as other parts of the world. In era of IPR the new variety can be identified based on allelic variation among varieties supplementing DUS test and product traceability. © 2013 Iquebal et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Pandey S.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Tyagi R.K.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Devi C.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | Singh N.,National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2014

Vegetables, with higher productivity compared to other crops, are nutritionally superior apart from containing numerous phytochemicals. Increasing production, productivity and quality of vegetables through breeding programmes to develop high yielding, biotic, abiotic stress tolerant/ resistant and quality is of paramount importance. Plant genetic resources are essential basic raw materials to meet the current and future needs of crop improvement programmes. In India, NBPGR maintains base collections of different vegetables in the Long-Term Storage in National Genebank. A total of 60 germplasm accessions with unique traits have been registered in different vegetable crops. It also introduces trait-specific germplasm from foreign sources meeting the requirement of breeders in National Agricultural Research System. Further efforts are needed to collect and introduce diverse trait-specific germplasm and evaluation for developing core and mini-core for efficient utilization of germplasm to develop climate-resilient varieties. © 2014, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.

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