Germicopa R and D

Châteauneuf-du-Faou, France

Germicopa R and D

Châteauneuf-du-Faou, France
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Rakotonindraina T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chauvin J.-E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Pelle R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Faivre R.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

The Shtienberg model for predicting yield loss caused by Phytophthora infestans in potato was developed and parameterized in the 1990s in North America. The predictive quality of this model was evaluated in France for a wide range of epidemics under different soil and weather conditions and on cultivars different than those used to estimate its parameters. A field experiment was carried out in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in Brittany, western France to assess late blight severity and yield losses. The dynamics of late blight were monitored on eight cultivars with varying types and levels of resistance. The model correctly predicted relative yield losses (efficiency = 0.80, root mean square error of prediction = 13.25%, and bias = -0.36%) as a function of weather and the observed disease dynamics for a wide range of late blight epidemics. In addition to the evaluation of the predictive quality of the model, this article provides a dataset that describes the development of various late blight epidemics on potato as a function of weather conditions, fungicide regimes, and cultivar susceptibility. Following this evaluation, the Shtienberg model can be used with confidence in research and development programs to better manage potato late blight in France. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.

Fiers M.,University of Burgundy | Edel-Hermann V.,University of Burgundy | Heraud C.,University of Burgundy | Gautheron N.,University of Burgundy | And 4 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2011

The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of many plants and causes severe damage in crops around the world. Strains of R. solani from the anastomosis group (AG) 3 attack potatoes, leading to great yield losses and to the downgrading of production. The study of the genetic diversity of the strains of R. solani in France allows the structure of the populations to be determined and adapted control strategies against this pathogen to be established. The diversity of 73 French strains isolated from tubers grown in the main potato seed production areas and 31 strains isolated in nine other countries was assessed by phylogenetic analyses of (i) the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), (ii) a part of the gene tef-1α and (iii) the total DNA fingerprints of each strain established by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The determination of the AGs of R. solani based on the sequencing of the ITS region showed three different AGs among our collection (60 AG 3 PT, 8 AG 2-1 and 5 AG 5). Grouping of the strains belonging to the same AG was confirmed by sequencing of the gene tef-1α used for the first time to study the genetic diversity of R. solani. About 42% of ITS sequences and 72% of tef-1α sequences contained polymorphic sites, suggesting that the cells of R. solani strains contain several copies of ITS and the tef-1α gene within the same nucleus or between different nuclei. Phylogenetic trees showed a greater genetic diversity within AGs in tef-1α sequences than in ITS sequences. The AFLP analyses showed an even greater diversity among the strains demonstrating that the French strains of R. solani isolated from potatoes were not a clonal population. Moreover there was no relationship between the geographical origins of the strains or the variety from which they were isolated and their genetic diversity. © 2011 by The Mycological Society of America.

Fiers M.,University of Burgundy | Chatot C.,Germicopa R and D | Edel-Hermann V.,University of Burgundy | Le Hingrat Y.,FNPPPT | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Skin blemishes of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers can cause severe economical losses to production. Some blemishes are due to known pathogens and others whose causes are unknown are called atypical blemishes. The present work aims at determining the origin of superficial atypical blemishes on a set of 204 tubers coming from 12 different French regions producing potato. The diversity of fungi and Streptomyces bacteria associated with blemishes was investigated by systematic isolation followed by identification by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA for fungi and by sequencing the 16S ribosomal DNA for bacteria. We found a high microbial diversity represented by 349 fungal isolates belonging to at least 47 different species and 21 bacterial strains of Streptomyces sp. The most represented fungi belonged to the genera Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Alternaria, Penicillium, and Clonostachys. The pathogenicity of representative isolates was assessed in three bioassays; two bioassays based on single inoculations in previously sterilized potting mixture, and one bioassay based on both single and double inoculations under hydroponic conditions. We fulfilled the Koch's postulates for Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 producing sclerotia. For other fungal and bacterial strains, our results did not show any causality or relationship between a single isolate or a complex and the occurrence of the blemishes. Moreover, the observation of irregular polygonal sunken corky lesions (polygonal lesions)-the most frequent atypical blemish-on non-inoculated tubers, suggested that the atypical blemishes could as well be a reaction of the plant to stressful environmental conditions. © 2010 KNPV.

Fiers M.,University of Burgundy | Edel-Hermann V.,University of Burgundy | Chatot C.,Germicopa R and D | Le Hingrat Y.,Bretagne Plants | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2012

Potato crop is the fourth main food crop in the world and it will certainly feed a big part of the global population in the next years. The economical outlets for this crop are great; however, numerous diseases either soil- or airborne can cause huge losses in the production. Worldwide, about 40 soil-borne diseases affect potato and cause severe damages especially on tubers, the economically most important part of the plant. The occurrence and development of soilborne diseases depend on very diverse factors affecting either the pathogen or the plant. Favorable conditions for potato diseases development are frequently the same as the conditions needed for potato growth: temperature between 10°C and 25°C, high humidity, medium pH, etc. Adapted cultural practices such as a rotation longer than 4 years, appropriate fertilization and watermanagement, an adapted delay between haulm killing and harvest, and dry and cool conditions for tuber storage are good ways to control potato diseases. Inmost cases, potato pathogens develop specific survival forms, dissemination ways and host penetration methods. The genetic variability of the pathogens implies the use of adapted diagnostic and control methods. Decision support systems developed to predict yield losses allow choosing good control methods such as the use of healthy seeds, adapted pesticides, cultural practices, and biological control agents for each potato disease. The complexity of the interactions between a pathogen and its host, influenced by biotic and abiotic factors of the environment, make the control of the diseases often very difficult. However, deep knowledge of pathosystems allows setting up integrated pest management systems allowing the production of healthy and good quality potatoes. © INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

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