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Gastelurrutia P.,Germans Trias i Pujol Health Research Institute | Lupon J.,Heart Failure Unit | Lupon J.,Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol | Altimir S.,Heart Failure Unit | And 16 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2014

Background Heart failure (HF) is a chronic condition with poor prognosis, and has a high prevalence among older adults. Due to older age, fragility is often present among HF patients. However, even young HF patients show a high degree of fragility. The effect of fragility on long-term prognosis in HF patients, irrespective of age, remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fragility on long-term prognosis in outpatients with HF. Methods and results At least one abnormal evaluation among four standardized geriatric scales was used to identify fragility. Predefined criteria for such scales were: Barthel Index, < 90; OARS scale, < 10 in women and < 6 in men; Pfeiffer Test, > 3 (± 1, depending on educational grade); and ≥ 1 positive response for depression on the abbreviated Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). We assessed 1314 consecutive HF outpatients (27.8% women, mean age years 66.7 ± 12.4 years with different etiologies. Fragility was detected in 581 (44.2%) patients. 626 deaths occurred during follow-up; the median follow-up was 3.6 years [P25-P75: 1.8-6.7] for the total cohort, and 4.9 years [P25-P75: 2.5-8.4] for living patients. Fragility and its components were significantly associated with decreased survival by univariate analysis. In a comprehensive multivariable Cox regression analysis, fragility remained independently associated with survival in the entire cohort, and in age and left ventricular ejection fraction subgroups. Conclusion Fragility is a key determinant of survival in ambulatory patients with HF across all age strata. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Gastelurrutia P.,Germans Trias i Pujol Health Research Institute | Lupon J.,Heart Failure Unit and Cardiology Service | Lupon J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | De Antonio M.,Heart Failure Unit and Cardiology Service | And 10 more authors.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings | Year: 2012

Objective: To assess the relationship between statins and prognosis in ischemic and nonischemic patients with heart failure (HF) in a real-life cohort followed up for a long period. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 960 patients with HF with preserved or depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), irrespective of HF etiology, who were referred to the HF clinic of a university hospital between August 1, 2001, and December 31, 2008. The patients were followed up for a maximum of 9.1 years (median, 3.7 years), and survival in ischemic and nonischemic patients was determined. Results: Median age was 69 years, and median LVEF was 31%. Of the 960 patients, 532 (55.4%) had ischemic HF etiology, and most received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (846; 88.1%) and -blockers (776; 80.8%). Patients withHFof ischemic origin weremoreoften treated with statins (P<.001). During follow-up,440patients (45.8%) died. Statin therapy was associated with significantly improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.54]; P<.001). After adjustment for HF prognostic factors (age, sex, cholesterol level, New York Heart Association class, HF etiology, LVEF, body mass index, HF duration, atrial fibrillation, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy, and medicines), statins remained significantly associated with lower mortality risk in both ischemic (P=.007) and nonischemic (P=.002) patients. Conclusion: In contrast to results of large randomized trials, statins were independently and significantly associated with lower mortality risk in our real-life HF cohort, including patients with nonischemic HF etiology. © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

Lupon J.,Heart Failure Unit | Lupon J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gastelurrutia P.,Germans Trias i Pujol Health Research Institute | De Antonio M.,Heart Failure Unit | And 15 more authors.
European Journal of Heart Failure | Year: 2013

Aims: Heart failure (HF) is a chronic condition that typically affects a patient's quality of life (QoL). Little is known about long-term QoL monitoring in HF. This study aimed to evaluate the temporal changes and prognostic value of QoL assessment in a real-life cohort of HF patients.Methods and resultsThe Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire was used to monitor QoL at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 years for 1151 consecutive patients 71.7% men, median age 69 years [25th-75th percentiles (P25-P75) 59-76] in an HF unit. Follow-up for prognosis assessment was extended to 6 years. The number of answered questionnaires was 1151 at baseline, 746 at 1 year, 268 at 3 years, and 240 at 5 years. QoL scores showed a steep decrease (indicating QoL improvement) during the first year [29 (P25-P 75 16-43) at baseline vs. 15 (P25-P75 8-27) at 1 year, P < 0.001], which was tempered, yet significant up to 5 years [12 (P25-P75 7-23) at 3 years vs. 10 (P25-P 75 5-21) at 5 years, P = 0.012]. We recorded 457 deaths during follow-up. In a comprehensive multivariable Cox regression analysis, baseline QoL remained a significant prognosticator during follow-up [hazard ratio (HR)Cox for death 1.012, 95% confidence interval 1.006-1.018, P < 0.001]. QoL monitoring showed that a score increase ≥10% between consecutive assessments stratified high-risk patients within the next 12 months (P = 0.008).ConclusionBoth baseline and follow-up QoL monitoring were useful for patient risk stratification in a real-life HF cohort. Worse QoL may warn of a worse prognosis. Widespread QoL monitoring in routine clinical practice is recommended. © 2012 The Author.

Gastelurrutia P.,Germans Trias i Pujol Health Research Institute | Lupon J.,Cardiology Service | Lupon J.,University of Barcelona | de Antonio M.,Cardiology Service | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background & aims: Nutritional assessment may help to explain the incompletely understood obesity paradox in patients with heart failure (HF). Currently, obesity is usually identified by body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to assess the prognostic influence of undernourishment in HF outpatients. Methods: Two published definitions of undernourishment were used to assess 214 ambulatory HF patients. Definition 1 included albumin, total lymphocyte count, tricipital skinfold (TS), subscapular skinfold, and arm muscle circumference (AMC) measurements (≥2 below normal considered undernourishment). Definition 2 included TS, AMC, and albumin (≥1 below normal considered undernourishment). Patients were also stratified by BMI and body fat percentage and followed for 2 years. All-cause death or HF hospitalization was the primary endpoint. Results: Based on BMI strata, among underweight patients, 60% and 100% were undernourished by Definitions 1 and 2, respectively (31% and 44% among normal-weight, 4% and 11% among overweight, and 0% and 3% among obese patients, respectively, according to the two definitions). The most prevalent undernourishment type was marasmus-like (18% of the total cohort). Undernourishment by both definitions was significantly associated with lower event-free survival. Following multivariable analysis, age, NYHA functional class, NTproBNP, and undernourishment (hazard ratio [HR] 2.25 [1.11-4.56] and 2.24 [1.19-4.21] for Definitions 1 and 2, respectively) remained in the model. In this cohort, BMI and percentage of body fat did not independently predict 2-year event-free survival. Conclusions: Nutritional status is a key prognostic factor in HF above and beyond BMI and percentage of body fat. Patients in normal BMI range and even in overweight and obese groups showed undernourishment. The high mortality observed in undernourishment, infrequent in high BMI patients, may help to partly explain the obesity paradox. Proper undernourishment assessment should become routine in patients with HF. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

Gastelurrutia P.,Germans Trias i Pujol Health Research Institute | Lupon J.,Cardiology Service | Lupon J.,University of Barcelona | Domingo M.,Cardiology Service | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2011

The obesity paradox in heart failure (HF) is criticized because of the limitations of body mass index (BMI) in correctly characterizing overweight and obese patients, necessitating a better evaluation of nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status, BMI, and significance in terms of HF survival. Anthropometry and biochemical nutritional markers were assessed in 55 HF patients. Undernourishment was defined as the presence of <2 of the following indexes below the normal range: triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, arm muscle circumference, albumin, and total lymphocyte count. Patients were also stratified by BMI and followed for a median of 26.7 months. Across BMI strata, no patient was underweight, 31% were normal weight, 42% were overweight, and 27% were obese. Undernourishment was present in 53% of normal-weight patients, 22% of overweight patients, and none of the obese patients (p = 0.001). Undernourished patients had significantly higher mortality (p = 0.009) compared to well-nourished patients. In multivariate analysis, only undernutrition (hazard ratio 3.149, 95% confidence interval 1.367 to 7.253), New York Heart Association functional class (hazard ratio 3.374, 95% confidence interval 1.486 to 7.659), and age (hazard ratio 1.115, 95% confidence interval 1.045 to 1.189) remained in the model. Among nutritional indicators, subscapular skinfold was the best predictor of mortality; patients with subscapular skinfold in the fifth percentile had higher mortality (p = 0.0001). In conclusion, BMI does not indicate true nutritional status in HF. Classifying patients as well nourished or undernourished may improve risk stratification. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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