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Planas R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Carrillo J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Sanchez A.,University of Barcelona | Ruiz De Villa M.C.,University of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2010

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by the selective destruction of the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas by an autoimmune response. Due to ethical and practical difficulties, the features of the destructive process are known from a small number of observations, and transcriptomic data are remarkably missing. Here we report whole genome transcript analysis validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and correlated with immunohistological observations for four T1D pancreases (collected 5 days, 9 months, 8 and 10 years after diagnosis) and for purified islets from two of them. Collectively, the expression profile of immune response and inflammatory genes confirmed the current views on the immunopathogenesis of diabetes and showed similarities with other autoimmune diseases; for example, an interferon signature was detected. The data also supported the concept that the autoimmune process is maintained and balanced partially by regeneration and regulatory pathway activation, e.g. non-classical class I human leucocyte antigen and leucocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, subfamily B1 (LILRB1). Changes in gene expression in islets were confined mainly to endocrine and neural genes, some of which are T1D autoantigens. By contrast, these islets showed only a few overexpressed immune system genes, among which bioinformatic analysis pointed to chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) and chemokine (CXC motif) receptor 4) (CXCR4) chemokine pathway activation. Remarkably, the expression of genes of innate immunity, complement, chemokines, immunoglobulin and regeneration genes was maintained or even increased in the long-standing cases. Transcriptomic data favour the view that T1D is caused by a chronic inflammatory process with a strong participation of innate immunity that progresses in spite of the regulatory and regenerative mechanisms. © 2009 British Society for Immunology.


Planas R.,Research Institute Germans Trias i Pujol | Pujol-Borrell R.,Research Institute Germans Trias i Pujol | Pujol-Borrell R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Vives-Pi M.,Research Institute Germans Trias i Pujol | Vives-Pi M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Immunology Letters | Year: 2010

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the selective destruction of the insulin-producing β cells. Research into the pathogenesis of T1D has been hindered by the lack of detection of the autoimmune process during the asymptomatic period and by the inaccessibility to the target tissue. Therefore current understanding of the immunological phenomena that take place in the pancreas of the patients is very limited and much of the current knowledge on T1D has been obtained using animal models. Microarray technology and bioinformatics allow the comparison of the gene expression profile - transcriptome - in normal and pathological conditions, creating a global picture of altered processes. Microarray experiments have defined new transcriptional alterations associated with several autoimmune diseases, and are focused on the identification of specific biomarkers. In this review we summarize current data on gene expression profiles in T1D from an immunological point of view. Reported transcriptome studies have been performed in T1D patients and Non-Obese Diabetic mouse models analyzing peripheral blood, lymphoid organs and pancreas/islets. In the periphery, the distinctive profiles are inflammatory pathways inducible by IL-1β and IFNs that can help in the identification of new biomarkers. In the target organ, a remarkable finding is the overexpression of inflammatory and innate immune response genes and the active autoimmune response at longstanding stages, contrary to the pre-existing concept of acute autoimmune process in T1D. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Research Institute Germans Trias i Pujol
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Immunology letters | Year: 2010

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by the selective destruction of the insulin-producing cells. Research into the pathogenesis of T1D has been hindered by the lack of detection of the autoimmune process during the asymptomatic period and by the inaccessibility to the target tissue. Therefore current understanding of the immunological phenomena that take place in the pancreas of the patients is very limited and much of the current knowledge on T1D has been obtained using animal models. Microarray technology and bioinformatics allow the comparison of the gene expression profile - transcriptome - in normal and pathological conditions, creating a global picture of altered processes. Microarray experiments have defined new transcriptional alterations associated with several autoimmune diseases, and are focused on the identification of specific biomarkers. In this review we summarize current data on gene expression profiles in T1D from an immunological point of view. Reported transcriptome studies have been performed in T1D patients and Non-Obese Diabetic mouse models analyzing peripheral blood, lymphoid organs and pancreas/islets. In the periphery, the distinctive profiles are inflammatory pathways inducible by IL-1 and IFNs that can help in the identification of new biomarkers. In the target organ, a remarkable finding is the overexpression of inflammatory and innate immune response genes and the active autoimmune response at longstanding stages, contrary to the pre-existing concept of acute autoimmune process in T1D.

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