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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2012.2.3.1 | Award Amount: 19.53M | Year: 2012

The overall objectives of the INNWIND.EU project are the high performance innovative design of a beyond-state-of-the-art 10-20MW offshore wind turbine and hardware demonstrators of some of the critical components. These ambitious primary objectives lead to a set of secondary objectives, which are the specific innovations, new concepts, new technologies and proof of concepts at the sub system and turbine level. The progress beyond the state of the art is envisaged as an integrated wind turbine concept with i) a light weight rotor having a combination of adaptive characteristics from passive built-in geometrical and structural couplings and active distributed smart sensing and control, ii) an innovative, low-weight, direct drive generator and iii) a standard mass-produced integrated tower and substructure that simplifies and unifies turbine structural dynamic characteristics at different water depths. A lightweight blade design will be demonstrated at a MW scale turbine. The drive train innovations include a super conducting generator; pseudo magnetic drive train and a light weight re-design of the bedplate for reduced tower top mass. The superconducting generator technology and the pseudo magnetic drive technology will be demonstrated at relevant scales by participating industry. The concepts are researched individually at the component level but also at the wind turbine system level in an integrated approach. Their benefits are quantified through suitable performance indicators and their market deployment opportunities are concretely established in two dedicated integrating work packages. The consortium comprises of leading Industrial Partners and Research Establishments focused on longer term research and innovation of industrial relevance. The project addresses the heart of the Long Term R&D Programme of the New Turbines and Components strand of the European Wind Initiative (EWI) established under SET-Plan, the Common European Policy for Energy Technologies.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2008.2.6.1 | Award Amount: 8.40M | Year: 2009

In contrast to other renewable energy sources, wave energy conversion is currently at a stage of evolution where it is being demonstrated using a wide range of very diverse technologies and a de facto standard approach is yet to emerge. A fully functional, but reduced scale prototype Wavebob wave energy converter (WEC) has already been deployed in the Atlantic Ocean. STANDPOINT will seek to demonstrate this WEC technology at full size for a further long term Atlantic Ocean deployment, 12 months of which will occur within the timeframe of the STANDPOINT project. Unlike its smaller-scale scale predecessor, it is intended that this pre-commercial WEC will be grid-connected. The intended location for the deployment is off the Portuguese coast. The indicative dimensions of the WEC for a full-scale deployment in this part of the Atlantic are 14 m diameter, 40 m draft. The WEC will have a power take-off (PTO) using proven hydraulic technology and a newly developed and innovative switched reluctance generator technology will also be investigated. There are 6 partners from 5 member states, including a Certification Body who will develop and disseminate rules and guidelines for wave energy converters. Innovative SMEs (including the co-ordinator) will demonstrate recently patented technology, in which they lead the state-of-the-art. A large power generation company, and various sub-contractors will work together to implement this ambitious full-scale demonstration. The aim is to establish the offshore tuneable-resonance point absorber as the winning wave energy conversion technique by demonstrating the superiority of its power take-off technology, adaptability to changing sea conditions, reliability and survivability.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-02-2014 | Award Amount: 7.27M | Year: 2015

The focus of the project will be on floating wind turbines installed at water depths from 50m to about 200m. The consortium partners have chosen to focus on large wind turbines (in the region of 10MW), which are seen as the most effective way of reducing the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE). The objective of the proposed project is two-fold: 1. Optimize and qualify, to a TRL5 level, two (2) substructure concepts for 10MW turbines. The chosen concepts will be taken from an existing list of four (4) TRL>4 candidates currently supporting turbines in the region of 5MW. The selection of the two concepts will be made based on technical, economical, and industrial criteria. An existing reference 10MW wind turbine design will be used throughout the project. 2. More generally, develop a streamlined and KPI-based methodology for the design and qualification process, focusing on technical, economical, and industrial aspects. This methodology will be supported by existing numerical tools, and targeted development and experimental work. It is expected that resulting guidelines/recommended practices will facilitate innovation and competition in the industry, reduce risks, and indirectly this time, contribute to a lower LCOE. End users for the project deliverables will be developers, designers and manufacturers, but also decision makers who need to evaluate a concept based on given constraints. The proposed project is expected to have a broad impact since it is not led by single group of existing business partners, focusing on one concept only. On the contrary, it will involve a strong consortium reflecting the value chain for offshore wind turbines: researchers, designers, classification societies, manufacturers, utilities. This will ensure that the projects outcomes suit the concrete requirements imposed by end-users.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-2.3-03 | Award Amount: 2.68M | Year: 2008

One of the major causes of failures of mechanical systems (e.g. drive trains, pitch systems, and yaw systems) in wind turbines is insufficient knowledge of the loads acting on these components. The objective of this pre-normative project is to set up a methodology that enables better specification of design loads for the mechanical components. The design loads will be specified at the interconnection points where the component can be isolated from the entire wind turbine structure (for gearboxes for instance the interconnection points are the shafts and the attachments to the nacelle frame). The focus will be on developing guidelines for measuring load spectra at the interconnection points during prototype measurements and to compare them with the initial design loads. Ultimately, the new procedures for the mechanical components will be brought at the same high level as the state-of-the-art procedures for designing and testing rotor blades and towers which are critical to safety. A well balanced consortium, consisting of a turbine manufacturer, component manufacturer, certification institute, and R&D institutes will describe the current practice for designing and developing mechanical components. Based on this starting point, the project team will draft improved procedures for determining loads at the interconnection points. The draft procedures will be applied to three case studies with each a different focus, viz. determining loads at the drive train, pitch system, and yaw system; the latter one taking into account complex terrain. The procedures will be assessed by the project team and depending on the outcome the procedures will be updated accordingly and disseminated. All partners will incorporate the new procedures in their daily practices for designing turbines and components, certifying them, and carrying out prototype measurements. Project results will be submitted to relevant standardisation committees.

EcoSwing aims at worlds first demonstration of a superconducting low-cost, lightweight drive train on a modern 3.6 MW wind turbine. EcoSwing is quantifiable: The generator weight is reduced by 40% compared to commercial permanent magnet direct-drive generators (PMDD). For the nacelle this means a very significant weight reduction of 25%. Assuming series production, cost reduction for the generator can be 40% compared to PMDD. Finally, reliance on rare earth metals is down by at least two orders of magnitude. This demonstration is enabled by the increasing maturity of industrial superconductivity. In an ambitious step beyond present activities, EcoSwing will advance the TRL from 4-5 to 6-7. We are shifting paradigms: Previously, HTS was considered for very big, highly efficient turbines for future markets only. By means of cost-optimization, EcoSwing targets a turbine of great relevance already to the present large-scale wind power market. The design principles of EcoSwing are applicable to markets with a wide range of turbine ratings from 2 MW to 10 MW and beyond. Despite technological successes in superconductivity, turbine manufacturers and generator suppliers are hesitant to apply HTS into the wind sector, because of real and perceived risks. The environment inside a wind turbine has unique requirements to generators (parasitic loads and moments, vibration, amount of independent hours of operation). Therefore, a demonstration is required. The consortium represents a full value chain from materials, over components, up to a turbine manufacturer as an end-user providing market pull. It features competent partners on the engineering, the cryogenic, and the power conversion side. Also ground-based testing before turbine deployment, pre-certification activities, and training are included. EcoSwing can become tangible: The EcoSwing demonstrator will commence operation in 2018 on an existing very modern 3.6 MW wind turbine in Thyborn, Denmark.

Han T.,GL Garrad Hassan | McCann G.,GL Garrad Hassan | Mucke T.A.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH | Freudenreich K.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH
Renewable Energy | Year: 2014

This study presents the external wind conditions for the design and assessment of wind turbine loading in tropical cyclone regions, including physical constants, wind speed (cyclone classes), wind shear, turbulence intensity, turbulence length scale and turbulence spectral models. For the extreme condition, this study focuses on the wind characteristics of the cyclone eye-wall region that carries the strongest wind. For the dynamic response of wind turbine structures, it is worth the effort to characterize the size of eddies constituting turbulent wind. The turbulence integral length scale for cyclone wind is defined and validated with various measurements. Moreover, several turbulence spectral models are validated with field measurements and the ESDU von Karman model gives the best fit. Based on the external wind conditions, a new turbulent cyclone wind model is created with the associated load case(s). A state-of-the-art load analysis is performed using this new cyclone wind model and the results for the relevant turbine components are compared with the existing loads envelope. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Janele T.O.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH | Landskroner S.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH | Klose M.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH
Stahlbau | Year: 2015

Determination of pile-driving fatigue at flanges of monopile foundations. Cost-efficient design concepts of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines have recently focused on bolted ring flange connections. The bolted connection between the monopile and transition piece implies that the pile-driving operation by means of a hydraulic hammer is directly performed on the flange. The highly dynamic pile-driving loads may lead to substantial pre-damages at the flange structure and weld. For the determination of pile-driving fatigue, the initial hammer strike as well as an induced oscillation has to be considered. In this paper, the main parameters defining a pile-driving analysis are presented. Basic pile-driving effects are investigated by application of a one-dimensional wave equation analysis. The results are used to validate a detailed finite element (FE) model which simulates the initial hammer strike as well as the dynamic response of the pile-soil interaction. Based on the calculation results, recommendations for design optimizations and evaluation methods of pile-driving fatigue are provided. © 2015 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

Berndt H.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH
European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition 2010, EWEC 2010 | Year: 2010

As a result of the progressive wind energy market in Europe and the serial production of wind turbines the subject of CE marking is getting more important for all parties involved in wind power industry. Authorities do not longer tolerate non-compliance of wind turbines with the essential health and safety requirements given in the European directives. This article gives an overview of the CE marking procedure and describes the basic principles of the risk assessment as key element.

Woebbeking M.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH
European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition 2010, EWEC 2010 | Year: 2010

Certification of wind farms, turbines or components is state-of-the-art and a must in most places around the world. Furthermore assessment to harmonised regulations is an active support of export and eases market entries. Therefore it is important to know the different certification processes and guidelines as well as the keystones of their development for all parties involved in a project lifecycle. This paper puts focus on the latest guideline developments for GL 2010: Guideline for the Certification of Wind Turbines, Edition 2010 and describes the outcome and latest innovations of Germanischer Lloyd and its technical committee for certification of wind turbines and projects onshore. Based on [12] it informs about some changes in detail. © Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH.

Landskroner S.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH | Geschwind A.,Germanischer Lloyd Industrial Services GmbH
European Wind Energy Association Conference and Exhibition 2014, EWEA 2014 | Year: 2014

Foundation structures contribute about one third of the costs of offshore wind farms. They are therefore particularly suitable for optimisation. At DNV GL Energy a study was made with the focus on optimising the dead weight of a foundation structure. Basis for the study was the monopile of an offshore wind farm in the German Bight. The emphasis was optimising the shell thickness by exhausting the capacity of the fatigue and ultimate limit state for an individual location, the selection of the detail category and the buckling analysis method. The highest benefit was achieved by optimising the capacity of the fatigue and ultimate limit state for the monopile's location. A reduction of the dead weight up to 76% of the original mass could be reached. By only using better detail categories additional 7%, together with improved tolerances for the verification of buckling further 2% could be reached. Caused by the optimisation there is a change in the natural frequency and thus an impact on the loads. The loads must be adapted to the optimised construction. The most relevant measures have to be combined for a considerable reduction of the weight: In the end mass reductions up to approximately 25 % are possible. This can only be reached by extensive consultation between the owner of the offshore wind farm, the foundation designer and the turbine supplier. The aim of this communication is an integrated load calculation by one appointed designer binding for all parts of the design phase.

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