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Porz am Rhein, Germany

German Sport University Cologne is a sport university in Cologne, Germany. It is the largest sports university in Europe with more than 5,000 students. The DSHS, in Cologne called SpoHo, is located in the Cologne district Müngersdorf, adjacent to the facilities of the major sports in Cologne, such as the RheinEnergieStadion. Wikipedia.

Thevis M.,German Sport University Cologne
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology | Year: 2010

The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays. © 2009 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Schmidt A.,German Sport University Cologne
Human Movement Science | Year: 2012

The purpose of the present study was to analyze the movement patterns of free-throw shooters in basketball at different skill levels. There were two points of interest. First, to explore what information can be drawn from the movement pattern and second, to examine the methodological possibilities of pattern analysis. To this end, several qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. The resulting data were converged in a triangulation. Using a special kind of ANN named Dynamically Controlled Networks (DyCoN), a 'complex feature' consisting of several isolated features (angle displacements and velocities of the articulations of the kinematic chain) was calculated. This 'complex feature' was displayed by a trajectory combining several neurons of the network, reflecting the devolution of the twelve angle measures over the time course of each shooting action. In further network analyses individual characteristics were detected, as well as movement phases. Throwing patterns were successfully classified and the stability and variability of the realized pattern were established. The movement patterns found were clearly individually shaped as well as formed by the skill level. The triangulation confirmed the individual movement organizations. Finally, a high stability of the network methods was documented. © 2012. Source

Memmert D.,German Sport University Cologne
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2011

Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that creativity is developed early in life and that the greatest improvements in creativity can be expected during this time. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the creative development of children depending on their level of expertise and attention processes. Moreover, the significance of general and specific attention components and special training effects in the development of specific and non-specific creative thinking remain unclear. Thus, skilled (team handball) and non-skilled children (n=120) aged 7, 10, and 13 completed two divergent thinking tasks (specific/non-specific) and two attention tasks (specific/non-specific) in a cross-sectional design. It is evident that general and sport-specific creativity have similar paths of development. Skilled players with high attention scores performed better than skilled players with low attention scores, in accordance with specific creative thinking abilities. In contrast, and in accordance with general creative thinking abilities, non-skilled players with less attentional skills outperformed non-skilled players. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

This article reviews seemingly conflicting behavioral data about sensorimotor adaptation. Some earlier studies assert that one common mechanism exists for multiple distortions, and others that multiple mechanisms exist for one given distortion. Some but not others report that adaptation is direction-selective. Some submit that adaptation transfers across effectors, and others that a single effector can adapt to multiple distortions. A model is proposed to account for all these findings. It stipulates that adaptive mechanisms respond to multiple distortions, consist of directionally tuned special-purpose modules, can be switched in dependence on contextual cues, and are connected to practiced movement types with a higher weight than to unpracticed ones. © 2013 Bock. Source

Pizzera A.,German Sport University Cologne
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport | Year: 2012

Gymnastic judges have the difficult task of evaluating highly complex skills. My purpose in the current study was to examine evidence that judges use their sensorimotor experiences to enhance their perceptual judgments. In a video test, 58 judges rated 31 gymnasts performing a balance beam skill. I compared decision quality between judges who could perform the skill themselves on the balance beam (specific motor experience = SME) and those who could not. Those with SME showed better performance than those without SME. These data suggest that judges use their personal experiences as information to accurately assess complex gymnastic. © 2012 by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Source

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