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Kohnke T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Sauter D.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Ringel K.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Hoster E.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 19 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2015

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry (flow MRD) after induction and consolidation therapy has been shown to provide independent prognostic information. However, data on the value of earlier flow MRD assessment are lacking. Therefore, the value of flow MRD detection was determined during aplasia in 178 patients achieving complete remission after treatment according to AMLCG (AML Cooperative Group) induction protocols. Flow MRD positivity during aplasia predicted poor outcome (5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) 16% vs 43%, P<0.001) independently from age and cytogenetic risk group (hazard ratio for MRD positivity 1.71; P=0.009). Importantly, the prognosis of patients without detectable MRD was neither impacted by morphological blast count during aplasia nor by MRD status postinduction. Early flow MRD was also evaluated in the context of existing risk factors. Flow MRD was prognostic within the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (5-year RFS 15% vs 37%, P=0.016) as well as for patients with normal karyotype and NPM1 mutations (5-year RFS 13% vs 49%, P=0.02) or FLT3-ITD (3-year RFS rates 9% vs 44%, P=0.016). Early flow MRD assessment can improve current risk stratification approaches by prediction of RFS in AML and might facilitate adaptation of postremission therapy for patients at high risk of relapse. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved

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