Kremmer E.,Molecular Health GmbH |
Meyer K.,Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes |
Meyer K.,AG Sarikas |
Grasser F.A.,Universitatsklinikum des Saarlandes |
And 4 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Procalcitonin (PCT)-a diagnostic serum parameter for bacterial infection and sepsis-is of great interest in the field of biosensors for point-of-care testing. Its detection needs specific biological recognition elements, such as antibodies. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for PCT, and their application in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the determination of PCT in patient serum samples. From about 50 mAbs, two mAbs, CALCA 2F3 and CALCA 4A6, were selected as a pair with high affinity for PCT in sandwich immunoassays. Both mAbs could be used either as capture or as detection mAb. They were Protein G-purified and biotinylated when used as detection mAb. The setup of two sandwich ELISAs with standards of human recombinant (hr) PCT, using either CALCA 2F3 (assay A) or CALCA 4A6 (assay B) as capture mAbs and the biotinylated mAbs CALCA 4A6 or CALCA 2F3, respectively, as detection mAbs, led to highly specific determinations of PCT without cross-reactivity to calcitonin and katacalcin. Test midpoints (IC 50) of both assays were determined for hrPCT standards in 4% (w/v) human serum albumin and found with 2.5 (assay A) and 2.7 μg L -1 (assay B). With both sandwich ELISAs a collection of eight patient serum samples have been determined in comparison to the determination by the Elecsys BRAHMS PCT assay. Good correlations between our prototype ELISAs and the BRAHMS assay could be demonstrated (R 2: assay A, 0.996 and assay B, 0.990). The use of these newly developed anti-PCT mAbs should find broad applications in immunosensors for point-of-care diagnostics of sepsis and systemic inflammation processes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source
Heidenreich W.F.,German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH |
Heidenreich W.F.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Tomasek L.,National Radiation Protection Institute, Czech Republic |
Grosche B.,Institute Atmospharische Radioaktivitat |
And 2 more authors.
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
The biologically based two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model is used to analyze lung cancer mortality of European miners from the Czech Republic, France, and Germany. All three cohorts indicate a highly significant action of exposure to radon and its progeny on promotion. The action on initiation is not significant in the French cohort. An action on transformation was tested but not found significant. In a pooled analysis, the results based on the French and German datasets do not differ significantly in any of the used parameters. For the Czech dataset, only lag time and two parameters that determine the clonal expansion without exposure and with low exposure rates (promotion) are consistent with the other studies. For low exposure rates, the resulting relative risks are quite similar. Exposure estimates for each calendar year are used. A model for random errors in each of these yearly exposures is presented. Depending on the used technique of exposure estimate, Berkson and classical errors are used. The consequences for the model parameters are calculated and found to be mostly of minor importance, except that the large difference in the exposure-induced initiation between the studies is decreased substantially. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source
Balasubramanian S.K.,National University of Singapore |
Poh K.-W.,National University of Singapore |
Ong C.-N.,National University of Singapore |
Kreyling W.G.,German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH |
And 2 more authors.
Airborne engineered nanoparticles undergo agglomeration, and careful distinction must be made between primary and agglomerate size of particles, when assessing their health effects. This study compares the effects on rats undergoing 15-day inhalation exposure to airborne agglomerates of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of similar size distribution and number concentration (1×106particles/cm3), but two different primary diameters of 7nm or 20nm. Inhalation of agglomerates containing 7-nm AuNPs resulted in highest deposition by mass concentration in the lungs, followed by brain regions including the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, striatum, frontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, septum, cerebellum; aorta, esophagus, and kidney. Eight organs/tissues especially the brain retained greater mass concentration of Au after inhalation exposure to agglomerates of 7-nm than 20-nm AuNPs. Macrophage mediated escalation followed by fecal excretion is the major pathway of clearing inhaled AuNPs in the lungs. Microarray analyses of the hippocampus showed mostly downregulated genes, related to the cytoskeleton and neurite outgrowth. Together, results in this study indicate disintegration of nanosized agglomerates after inhalation and show impact of primary size of particles on subsequent biodistribution. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Kl A.,University of Marburg |
Sonar S.S.,University of Marburg |
Sonar S.S.,ETH Zurich |
Yildirim A.O.,German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Background: Excessive extracellular matrix deposition occurs as a result of repetitive injury-repair cycles and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as allergic asthma. The molecular mechanism leading to aberrant collagen deposition is not fully understood. Objective: We sought to test the hypothesis that increased nerve growth factor (NGF) production contributes to collagen deposition in the airways during chronic allergic airway inflammation. Methods: Antibody-blocking experiments were performed in an in vivo model for chronic allergic airway inflammation (allergic asthma), which is accompanied by matrix deposition in the subepithelial compartment of the airways, to study the profibrotic effect of NGF. The signaling pathways were delineated with in vivo and in vitro studies in primary lung fibroblasts. Results: Functional blocking of NGF in chronically affected mice markedly prevented subepithelial fibrosis. Transgenic overexpression of NGF in murine airways resulted in altered airway wall morphology with increased peribronchial collagen deposition and impaired lung physiology in the absence of inflammation. NGF exerted a direct effect on collagen expression in murine lung fibroblasts, which was mainly mediated through the activation of the receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A. NGF-induced collagen expression was dependent on downstream activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase independent of the TGF-β1/mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD) pathway. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that NGF exerts profibrotic activities in the airways by inducing type III collagen production in fibroblasts independently of TGF-β1. © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source
Marcon A.,University of Verona |
Cerveri I.,University of Pavia |
Wjst M.,German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH |
Wjst M.,TU Munich |
And 14 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Background: Evidence on the longitudinal association of airway responsiveness with respiratory diseases is scarce. The best indicator of responsiveness is still undetermined. Objective: We investigated the association of airway responsiveness with the incidence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and allergic rhinitis. Methods: We studied 3851 subjects who underwent spirometry and methacholine challenge tests both at baseline (1991-1993), when they were 20 to 44 years old, and at follow-up (1999-2002) in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Airway responsiveness was defined based on the methacholine dose-response slope on both occasions. Incidence rate ratios for the association of airway responsiveness with disease occurrence were computed by using Poisson regression. Results: With respect to reference (slope of the fourth quintile or greater), subjects with the greatest degree of airway responsiveness (slope less than the first quintile) showed the greatest risk of developing asthma, COPD, and allergic rhinitis (incidence rate ratios of 10.82, 5.53, and 4.84, respectively; all P <.01). A low slope predicted disease occurrence, even in subjects who did not reach a 20% decrease in FEV1 at the cumulative dose of 1 mg of methacholine (PD20 >1 mg). A decrease in slope over time was an independent predictor of disease risk. Conclusion: Airway responsiveness predicted new-onset asthma, COPD, and allergic rhinitis. Our study supports the use of a continuous noncensored indicator of airway responsiveness, such as the slope of the methacholine dose-response curve, in clinical practice and research because it showed clear advantages over PD20. © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Source