German Primate Research Center

Göttingen, Germany

German Primate Research Center

Göttingen, Germany
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Supplie L.M.,Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine | Duking T.,Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine | Campbell G.,Center for Neuroregeneration | Diaz F.,University of Miami | And 6 more authors.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2017

Neurons and glial cells exchange energy-rich metabolites and it has been suggested, originally based on in vitro data, that astrocytes provide lactate to glutamatergic synapses ("lactate shuttle"). Here, we have studied astrocytes that lack mitochondrial respiration in vitro and in vivo A novel mouse mutant (GLASTCreERT2::Cox10flox/flox) was generated, in which the administration of tamoxifen causes mutant astrocytes to fail in the assembly of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Focusing on cerebellar Bergmann glia (BG) cells, which exhibit the highest rate of Cre-mediated recombination, we found a normal density of viable astrocytes even 1 year after tamoxifen-induced Cox10 gene targeting. Our data show that BG cells, and presumably all astrocytes, can survive by aerobic glycolysis for an extended period of time in the absence of glial pathology or unspecific signs of neurodegeneration.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT When astrocytes are placed into culture, they import glucose and release lactate, an energy-rich metabolite readily metabolized by neurons. This observation led to the "glia-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis," but in vivo evidence for this hypothesis is weak. To study astroglial energy metabolism and the directionality of lactate flux, we generated conditional Cox10 mouse mutants lacking mitochondrial respiration in astrocytes, which forces these cells to survive by aerobic glycolysis. Here, we report that these mice are fully viable in the absence of any signs of glial or neuronal loss, suggesting that astrocytes are naturally glycolytic cells. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/374231-12$15.00/0.


Kuhl A.,Hannover Medical School | Pohlmann S.,German Primate Research Center | Pohlmann S.,Infection Biology Unit
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2012

Zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) to humans causes a severe haemorrhagic fever in afflicted individuals with high case-fatality rates. Neither vaccines nor therapeutics are at present available to combat EBOV infection, making the virus a potential threat to public health. To devise antiviral strategies, it is important to understand which components of the immune system could be effective against EBOV infection. The interferon (IFN) system constitutes a key innate defence against viral infections and prevents development of lethal disease in mice infected with EBOV strains not adapted to this host. Recent research revealed that expression of the host cell IFN-inducible transmembrane proteins 1-3 (IFITM1-3) and tetherin is induced by IFN and restricts EBOV infection, at least in cell culture model systems. IFITMs, tetherin and other effector molecules of the IFN system could thus pose a potent barrier against EBOV spread in humans. However, EBOV interferes with signalling events required for human cells to express these proteins. Here, we will review the strategies employed by EBOV to fight the IFN system, and we will discuss how IFITM proteins and tetherin inhibit EBOV infection. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Kuhl A.,Hannover Medical School | Banning C.,Heinrich Pette Institute | Marzi A.,Rocky Research | Votteler J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

The antiviral protein tetherin/BST2/CD317/HM1.24 restricts cellular egress of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and of particles mimicking the Ebola virus (EBOV), a hemorrhagic fever virus. The HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu) and the EBOV-glycoprotein (EBOV-GP) both inhibit tetherin. Here, we compared tetherin counteraction by EBOV-GP and Vpu. We found that EBOV-GP but not Vpu counteracted tetherin from different primate species, indicating that EBOV-GP and Vpu target tetherin differentially. Tetherin interacted with the GP2 subunit of EBOV-GP, which might encode the determinants for tetherin counteraction. Vpu reduced cell surface expression of tetherin while EBOV-GP did not, suggesting that both proteins employ different mechanisms to counteract tetherin. Finally, Marburg virus (MARV)-GP also inhibited tetherin and downregulated tetherin in a cell type-dependent fashion, indicating that tetherin antagonism depends on the cellular source of tetherin. Collectively, our results indicate that EBOV-GP counteracts tetherin by a novel mechanism and that tetherin inhibition is conserved between EBOV-GP and MARV-GP. © 2011 The Author Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

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