German Nutrition Society

Bonn, Germany

German Nutrition Society

Bonn, Germany
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Schwingshackl L.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Hoffmann G.,University of Vienna | Lampousi A.-M.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Knuppel S.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2017

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar for prospective studies investigating the association between whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) on risk of T2D. Summary relative risks were estimated using a random effects model by contrasting categories, and for linear and non-linear dose–response relationships. Six out of the 12 food-groups showed a significant relation with risk of T2D, three of them a decrease of risk with increasing consumption (whole grains, fruits, and dairy), and three an increase of risk with increasing consumption (red meat, processed meat, and SSB) in the linear dose–response meta-analysis. There was evidence of a non-linear relationship between fruits, vegetables, processed meat, whole grains, and SSB and T2D risk. Optimal consumption of risk-decreasing foods resulted in a 42% reduction, and consumption of risk-increasing foods was associated with a threefold T2D risk, compared to non-consumption. The meta-evidence was graded “low” for legumes and nuts; “moderate” for refined grains, vegetables, fruit, eggs, dairy, and fish; and “high” for processed meat, red meat, whole grains, and SSB. Among the investigated food groups, selecting specific optimal intakes can lead to a considerable change in risk of T2D. © 2017 The Author(s)


Schwingshackl L.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Schwedhelm C.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Hoffmann G.,University of Vienna | Lampousi A.-M.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2017

Background: Suboptimal diet is one of the most important factors in preventing early death and disability worldwide. Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups, including whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with risk of all-cause mortality. Design:We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar for prospective studies investigating the association between these 12 food groups and risk of all-cause mortality. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were estimated with the use of a random effects model for high-intake compared with low-intake categories, as well as for linear and nonlinear relations. Moreover, the risk reduction potential of foods was calculated by multiplying the RR by optimal intake values (serving category with the strongest association) for risk-reducing foods or risk-increasing foods, respectively. Results: With increasing intake (for each daily serving) of whole grains (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.95), vegetables (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.98), fruits (RR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.97), nuts (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.84), and fish (RR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98), the risk of all-cause mortality decreased; higher intake of red meat (RR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) and processed meat (RR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.36) was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in a linear dose-response meta-analysis. A clear indication of nonlinearity was seen for the relations between vegetables, fruits, nuts, and dairy and all-cause mortality. Optimal consumption of risk-decreasing foods results in a 56% reduction of all-cause mortality, whereas consumption of risk-increasing foods is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality. Conclusion: Selecting specific optimal intakes of the investigated food groups can lead to a considerable change in the risk of premature death. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;105:1462-73. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.


Boeing H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Bechthold A.,German Nutrition Society | Bub A.,Max Rubner Institute | Ellinger S.,University of Bonn | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: Vegetables and fruit provide a significant part of human nutrition, as they are important sources of nutrients, dietary fibre, and phytochemicals. However, it is uncertain whether the risk of certain chronic diseases can be reduced by increased consumption of vegetables or fruit by the general public, and what strength of evidence has to be allocated to such an association. Methods: Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the studies available in the literature and the respective study results has been performed and evaluated regarding obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cancer, chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, osteoporosis, eye diseases, and dementia. For judgement, the strength of evidence for a risk association, the level of evidence, and the number of studies were considered, the quality of the studies and their estimated relevance based on study design and size. Results: For hypertension, CHD, and stroke, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of disease. There is probable evidence that the risk of cancer in general is inversely associated with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, there is possible evidence that an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit may prevent body weight gain. As overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit therefore might indirectly reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Independent of overweight, there is probable evidence that there is no influence of increased consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is possible evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, COPD, and RA indicate that an increase in vegetable and fruit consumption may contribute to the prevention of these diseases. For IBD, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, there was insufficient evidence regarding an association with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. Conclusions: This critical review on the associations between the intake of vegetables and fruit and the risk of several chronic diseases shows that a high daily intake of these foods promotes health. Therefore, from a scientific point of view, national campaigns to increase vegetable and fruit consumption are justified. The promotion of vegetable and fruit consumption by nutrition and health policies is a preferable strategy to decrease the burden of several chronic diseases in Western societies. © 2012 The Author(s).


Wolfram G.,TU Munich | Bechthold A.,German Nutrition Society | Boeing H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Ellinger S.,Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2015

As nutrition-related chronic diseases have become more and more frequent, the importance of dietary prevention has also increased. Dietary fat plays a major role in human nutrition, and modification of fat and/or fatty acid intake could have a preventive potential. The aim of the guideline of the German Nutrition Society (DGE) was to systematically evaluate the evidence for the prevention of the widespread diseases obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and cancer through the intake of fat or fatty acids. The main results can be summarized as follows: it was concluded with convincing evidence that a reduced intake of total and saturated fat as well as a larger intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) at the expense of saturated fatty acids (SFA) reduces the concentration of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma. Furthermore, there is convincing evidence that a high intake of trans fatty acids increases risk of dyslipoproteinaemia and that a high intake of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids reduces the triglyceride concentration in plasma. A high fat intake increases the risk of obesity with probable evidence when total energy intake is not controlled for (ad libitum diet). When energy intake is controlled for, there is probable evidence for no association between fat intake and risk of obesity. A larger intake of PUFA at the expense of SFA reduces risk of CHD with probable evidence. Furthermore, there is probable evidence that a high intake of long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids reduces risk of hypertension and CHD. With probable evidence, a high trans fatty acid intake increases risk of CHD. The practical consequences for current dietary recommendations are described at the end of this article. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Hauner H.,TU Munich | Bechthold A.,German Nutrition Society | Boeing H.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Bronstrup A.,German Nutrition Society | And 6 more authors.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2012

The relative contribution of nutrition-related chronic diseases to the total disease burden of the society and the health care costs has risen continuously over the last decades. Thus, there is an urgent necessity to better exploit the potential of dietary prevention of diseases. Carbohydrates play a major role in human nutrition - next to fat, carbohydrates are the second biggest group of energy-yielding nutrients. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease and cancer are wide-spread diseases, in which carbohydrates could have a pathophysiologic relevance. Correspondingly, modification of carbohydrate intake could have a preventive potential. In the present evidence-based guideline of the German Nutrition Society, the potential role of carbohydrates in the primary prevention of the named diseases was judged systematically. The major findings were: a high carbohydrate intake at the expense of total fat and saturated fatty acids reduces the concentrations of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol. A high carbohydrate consumption at the expense of polyunsaturated fatty acids increases total and LDL cholesterol, but reduces HDL cholesterol. Regardless of the type of fat being replaced, a high carbohydrate intake promotes an increase in the triglyceride concentration. Furthermore, a high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages increases the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas a high dietary fibre intake, mainly from whole-grain products, reduces the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer at varying evidence levels. The practical consequences for current dietary recommendations are presented. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Stelmach-Mardas M.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Stelmach-Mardas M.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Rodacki T.,Jagiellonian University | Dobrowolska-Iwanek J.,Jagiellonian University | And 7 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2016

Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., - 0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: - 0.88, - 0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | German Nutrition Society, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, German Institute of Human Nutrition and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2016

Regulating the energy density of food could be used as a novel approach for successful body weight reduction in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature on the relationship between food energy density and body weight changes in obese adults to obtain solid evidence supporting this approach. The search process was based on the selection of publications in the English language listed in public databases. A meta-analysis was performed to combine individual study results. Thirteen experimental and observational studies were identified and included in the final analysis. The analyzed populations consist of 3628 individuals aged 18 to 66 years. The studies varied greatly in terms of study populations, study design and applied dietary approaches. The meta-analysis revealed a significant association between low energy density foods and body weight reduction, i.e., -0.53 kg when low energy density foods were eaten (95% CI: -0.88, -0.19). In conclusions, this study adds evidence which supports the energy density of food as a simple but effective measure to manage weight in the obese with the aim of weight reduction.


Strohm D.,German Nutrition Society
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2015

The reference values for energy intake of the German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies for children, adolescents and adults are derived using the factorial method. For adults, a mean BMI of 22 kg/m2 is taken as a basis given the current mean body size for adults residing in Germany (taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, DEGS1). The determination of the energy expenditure for infants is based on data obtained using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method. The energy storage in growing tissue will be added for the purpose of deriving reference values for this age group. For pregnant women, given an increase in body weight of 12 kg during pregnancy, guiding values for additional energy intake in the second trimester of 250 kcal/day and in the third trimester of 500 kcal/day are indicated using DLW data sets and taking energy storage in growing tissue into account. In case of overweight prior to pregnancy as well as in the case of reduced physical activity during pregnancy, the additional requirement is lower. For women exclusively breastfeeding during the first 4-6 months, the guiding value for additional energy intake is quoted as 500 kcal/day. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Strohm D.,German Nutrition Society
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2013

The nutrition societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of calcium and published them in June 2013. The reference values for the calcium intake for infants are derived from the calcium content of breast milk. For infants from 4 to <12 months of age, the calcium intake from solid foods is included in addition to the calcium intake from breast milk. Thus, the reference values for infants are estimated values; they are 220 mg/day for infants to <4 months and 330 mg/day for infants from 4 to <12 months of age. As a parameter for determining the calcium requirement in children and adolescents, calcium retention is taken into account. The average requirement is calculated by the factorial method. A balanced calcium metabolism is calculated based upon calcium balance studies and used as a parameter for the determination of the calcium requirement in adults. On the basis of the average requirement, recommended calcium intake levels for children, adolescents and adults are derived. Depending on age, the recommended calcium intake ranges between 600 mg/day for children aged 1 to <4 years and 1,200 mg/day for adolescents aged 13 to <19 years; for adults, it is 1,000 mg/day. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Bechthold A.,German Nutrition Society
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2015

The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 μmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with nonsmoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets the requirement in infants and that is 3 times higher than the amount necessary to prevent scurvy (7 mg/day). © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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