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Baber K.,University of Leipzig | Otto P.,University of Leipzig | Kahl T.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Gossner M.M.,TU Munich | And 4 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2016

Commercial forestry increasingly aims at both optimizing timber production and maintaining species diversity. To maintain the diversity of the species-rich group of wood-inhabiting fungi, effective forest conservation concepts that include the enrichment of dead wood in commercial forests are required. However, which type of dead wood should be enriched in which type of forest stand (coniferous or broad-leaved) is still debated. Our study aimed at (1) disentangling the relative importance of forest-stand type, dead-wood origin (tree species) and time since death and (2) determining whether fungal species richness on logs of broad-leaved trees is higher in broad-leaved stands than in coniferous stands and whether fungal species richness on logs of coniferous trees is higher in coniferous stands than in broad-leaved stands (home-field advantage). We exposed logs of 9 broad-leaved and 4 coniferous tree species in 19 broad-leaved and 9 coniferous forest stands in 2009 and surveyed the logs in 2012 and 2014 for wood-inhabiting fungi. Across all logs, fungal species richness was mainly driven by the tree species of the dead wood and time since death, whereas fungal community composition was solely driven by the tree species of the dead wood. The fungal species richness and community composition of broad-leaved logs was significantly correlated to time since death but not to forest-stand type. The fungal species richness and community composition of coniferous logs was neither affected by forest-stand type nor time since death. When individual tree species were considered, forest-stand type did not affect fungal species richness or community compositions, but fungal species richness on logs of Acer, Fagus, Carpinus and Populus increased with time since death. To increase the species richness of wood-inhabiting fungi in commercial forests, we recommend that the tree species diversity of dead wood should be increased and should especially originate from different lineages (angiosperms and gymnosperms), and that a broad variety of successional stages of dead wood should be maintained. Our results suggest that such a strategy would be effective irrespective of the tree species composition of the forest stand, as we found no support for home-field advantages in the early stage of decomposition. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Halbwachs H.,German Mycological Society | Brandl R.,University of Marburg | Bassler C.,Bavarian Forest National Park
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2015

Although fungal spores are tiny compared to plant seeds, their morphological variability is enormous, which points toward selective forces. We investigated the frequency of ornamentation, thick walls, pigmentation and germ pores of spores of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic agarics. We hypothesised that these traits are shaped by the needs of these distinct lifestyles. All traits showed a strong phylogenetic signal; we therefore applied a phylogenetically informed statistical analysis. There was a significantly higher occurrence of spore ornamentation in ectomycorrhizal agarics and a higher occurrence of thick-walled spores in saprotrophic agarics. The interplay between thick-walled and pigmented spores and the occurrence of germ pores was only significant for saprotrophs. We argue that ornamentation is probably important to ectomycorrhizal fungi for dispersal by soil invertebrates, whereas pigmented thick walls and germ pores would be more advantageous for predominantly r-selected saprotrophic agarics exposed to hazardous environments and in need of quick germination success. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. Source


Grebe S.-O.,Witten/Herdecke University | Langenbeck M.,Rotes Kreuz Krankenhaus | Schaper A.,University of Gottingen | Berndt S.,German Mycological Society | And 2 more authors.
Renal Failure | Year: 2013

Objectives: To study the frequency, severity, and long-term outcome of renal injury in Cortinarius orellanus poisoning, to evaluate the association between the ingested amount of C. orellanus and outcome, and to evaluate the effect of N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroid treatment on outcome. Methods: Case series of eight patients. Diagnosis and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were classified according to current AKI and CKD definitions. N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroids were administered to six patients, former according to the standard for paracetamol poisoning. Main findings: All patients developed AKI, six in the most severe stage and four required renal replacement therapy (RRT). After 12 months, seven patients presented with CKD, of whom three required chronic RRT and further two were in advanced CKD. AKI and CKD severity highly correlated with the consumed amounts of Cortinarius orellanus (r=0.98, p<0.001 and r=0.78, p=0.02, respectively) but not with N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions: AKI and CKD by current definitions and classifications are frequent and severe after Cortinarius orellanus poisoning. The ingested amount of Cortinarius orellanus correlates with the severity of both AKI and CKD. N-acetylcysteine and corticosteroid treatment do not seem to have a beneficial effect on either AKI or CKD. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Bassler C.,Bavarian Forest National Park | Halbwachs H.,German Mycological Society | Karasch P.,Bavarian Mycological Society | Holzer H.,Bavarian Mycological Society | And 5 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2016

Organisms have evolved a fascinating variety of strategies and organs for successful reproduction. Fruit bodies are the reproductive organ of fungi and vary considerably in size and shape among species. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the differences in fruit body size among species is still limited. Fruit bodies of saprotrophic fungi are smaller than those of mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi. If differences in fruit body size are determined by carbon acquisition, then mean reproductive traits of saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal fungi assemblages should vary differently along gradients of resource availability as carbon acquisition seems more unpredictable and costly for saprotrophs than for ectomycorrhizal fungi. Here, we used 48 local inventories of fungal fruit bodies (plot size: 0.02 ha each) sampled along a gradient of resource availability (growing stock) across 3 years in the Bavarian Forest National Park in Germany to investigate regional and local factors that might influence the distribution of species with different reproductive traits, particularly fruit body size. As predicted, mean fruit body size of local assemblages of saprotrophic fungi was smaller than expected from the distribution of traits of the regional species pool across central and northern Europe, whereas that of ectomycorrhizal fungi did not differ from random expectation. Furthermore and also as expected, mean fruit body size of assemblages of saprotrophic fungi was significantly smaller than for assemblages of ectomycorrhizal species. However, mean fruit body sizes of not only saprotrophic species but also ectomycorrhizal species increased with resource availability, and the mean number of fruit bodies of both assemblages decreased. Our results indicate that the differences in carbon acquisition between saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizal species lead to differences in basic reproductive strategies, with implications for the breadth of their distribution. However, the differences in resource acquisition cannot explain detailed species distribution patterns at a finer, local scale based on their reproductive traits. © 2016 Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Bassler C.,Bavarian Forest National Park | Muller J.,Bavarian Forest National Park | Muller J.,TU Munich | Cadotte M.W.,University of Toronto | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2016

Conifer-dominated forests in the northern hemisphere are prone to large-scale natural disturbances, yet our understanding of their effects beyond changes in species diversity is limited. Bark beetle disturbances provide dead wood for lignicolous fungal guilds and increase insolation but also desiccation. We investigated whether species richness of these guilds increases and functional diversity decreases after bark beetle disturbance, which would promote through habitat filtering the coexistence of species adapted to harsh conditions, i.e. light stress for lichens and substrate desiccation for wood-inhabiting fungi. We sampled epixylic and epiphytic lichens (primary producers) and wood-inhabiting fungi (mainly wood decomposers, some form ectomycorrhizas) in the Bohemian Forest (Long Term Ecological Research - LTER - Site Bavarian Forest National Park), an area in Central Europe most heavily affected by the bark beetle Ips typographus, on undisturbed plots and disturbed plots with spruce (Picea abies) dieback 8 years ago. We analysed species diversity, functional diversity (optimized by phylogeny), and functional compositions. Species richness of lichens but not that of wood-inhabiting fungi was higher on disturbed plots than on undisturbed plots. Community compositions of both guilds differed considerably on disturbed and undisturbed plots. On both types of plots, lichen communities were clustered according to functional diversity, which indicated habitat filtering, and fungal communities were overdispersed, which indicated competition. Disturbance increased the strength of these two patterns only slightly and was significant only for fungi. Single-trait analysis revealed changes in the functional composition; on disturbed plots, lichenous species with larger and more complex growth forms and fungi with large, perennial fruit bodies were favoured. Although the forest canopy changed tremendously because of the bark beetle disturbance, the most important driver of lichen and fungal diversity and mean trait assemblages seemed to be the enrichment of dead wood. The changes in insolation and moisture did not act as habitat filters for either guild. This indicated that the assembly patterns of lichen and fungal communities in coniferous forests are not affected by stand-replacing disturbances in contrast to the predictions for other disturbance regimes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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