German Mosquito Control Association KABS

Waldsee, Germany

German Mosquito Control Association KABS

Waldsee, Germany
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Dambach P.,University of Heidelberg | Louis V.R.,University of Heidelberg | Kaiser A.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Sauerborn R.,University of Heidelberg | And 2 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: In Sub Saharan Africa malaria remains one of the major health problems and its control represents an important public health measure. Integrated malaria control comprises the use of impregnated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying. The use of drugs to treat patients can create additional pressure on the equation of malaria transmission. Vector control may target the adult mosquitoes or their aquatic larval stages. Biological larvicides such as Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) represent a promising approach to support malaria control programs by creating additional pressure on the equation of malaria transmission. Methods: In this study we examined the efficacy of a water-dispersible granule formulation (WDG) of the biological larvicide Bti (VectoBac®) against wild Anopheles spp. larvae. Different concentrations of the larvicide were tested in standardized plastic tubs in the field against untreated controls. In weekly intervals tubs were treated with fixed concentrations of larvicide and the percentage reduction of larvae and pupae was calculated. Results: All used concentrations successfully killed 100 percent of the larvae within 24 hours, while the higher concentrations showed a slightly prolonged residual effect. Natural reconolization of larvae took place after two and three days respectively, late instar larvae were not found before 5 days after treatment. For the higher concentrations, up to three days no new larvae were found, implicating that the residual effect of WDG in tropical conditions is approximately one to two days. The overall pupae reduction in treated tubs was 98.5%. Conclusions: Biological larviciding with Bti can be a promising, additional tool in the fight against malaria in Africa. Environmental particularities in tropical Africa, first and foremost the rapid development of mosquitoes from oviposition to imago have to be taken into account before implementing such counter measures in national or international vector control programs. Nonetheless biological larviciding seems to be an appropriate measure for selected conditions, offering a significant contribution to the future of malaria control. © 2014 Dambach et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Czajka C.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Czajka C.,University of Heidelberg | Becker N.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Becker N.,University of Heidelberg | And 5 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2012

Abstract. Background: Knowledge of the potential vector role of Culicidae mosquitoes in Germany is very scanty, and until recently it was generally assumed that they are not involved in the transmission of anthroponotic or zoonotic pathogens in this country. However, anticipated changes in the course of global warming and globalization may alter their status. Methods. We conducted a molecular mass screening of mosquitoes for filarial parasites using mitochondrial 12S rRNA-based real-time PCR. Results: No parasites causing disease in humans such as Dirofilaria spp. were detected in about 83,000 mosquitoes tested, which had been collected in 2009 and 2010 in 16 locations throughout Germany. However, minimum infection rates of up to 24 per 1000 mosquitoes were revealed, which could be attributed to mosquito infection with Setaria tundra and a yet unidentified second parasite. Setaria tundra was found to be widespread in southern Germany in various mosquito species, except Culex spp. In contrast, the unidentified filarial species was exclusively found in Culex spp. in northern Baden-Württemberg, and is likely to be a bird parasite. Conclusions: Although dirofilariasis appears to be emerging and spreading in Europe, the absence of Dirofilaria spp. or other zoonotic filariae in our sample allows the conclusion that the risk of autochthonous infection in Germany is still very low. Potential vectors of S. tundra in Germany are Ochlerotatus sticticus, Oc. cantans, Aedes vexans and Anopheles claviger. Technically, the synergism between entomologists, virologists and parasitologists, combined with state-of-the-art methods allows a very efficient near-real-time monitoring of a wide spectrum of both human and veterinary pathogens, including new distribution records of parasite species and the incrimination of their potential vectors. © 2012 Czajka et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | German Mosquito Control Association KABS and University of Heidelberg
Type: | Journal: Global health action | Year: 2014

Malaria control is based on early treatment of cases and on vector control. The current measures for malaria vector control in Africa are mainly based on long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and to a much smaller extent on indoor residual spraying (IRS). A third pillar in the fight against the malaria vector, larval source management (LSM), has virtually not been used in Africa since the ban of DDT in the 1960s. Within the light of recent WHO recommendations for Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) use against malaria and other vector species, larval source management could see a revival in the upcoming years. In this project we analyze the ecologic and health impacts as well as the cost effectiveness of larval source management under different larviciding scenarios in a health district in Burkina Faso.The project is designed as prospective intervention study with duration of three years (2013-2015). Its spatial scale includes three arms of interventions and control, comprising a total of 127 villages and the district capital Nouna in the extended HDSS (Health Demographic Surveillance System) of the Kossi province. Baseline data on mosquito abundance, parasitemia in U5 children, and malaria related morbidity and mortality are gathered over the project duration. Besides the outcome on ecologic and health parameters, the economic costs are seized and valued against the achieved health benefits.Risk map based, guided larvicide application might be a possibility to further decrease economic cost of LSM and facilitate its faster incorporation to integrated malaria control programs. Given the limited resources in many malaria endemic countries, it is of utmost importance to relate the costs of novel strategies for malaria prevention to their effect on the burden of the disease. Occurring costs and the impact on the health situation will be made comparable to other, existing intervention strategies, allowing stakeholders and policymakers decision making.

PubMed | German Mosquito Control Association KABS and University of Heidelberg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2016

Recent malaria control and elimination attempts show remarkable success in several parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Vector control via larval source management represents a new and to date underrepresented approach in low income countries to further reduce malaria transmission. Although the positive impact of such campaigns on malaria incidence has been researched, there is a lack of data on which prerequisites are needed for implementing such programs on a routine basis on large scale. Our objectives are to point out important steps in implementing an anti-malaria larviciding campaign in a resource and infrastructure restraint setting and share the lessons learned from our experience during a three-year intervention study in rural Burkina Faso.We describe the approaches we followed and the challenges that have been encountered during the EMIRA project, a three-year study on the impact of environmental larviciding on vector ecology and human health. An inventory of all performed work packages and associated problems and peculiarities was assembled.Key to the successful implementation of the larviciding program within a health district was the support and infrastructure from the local research center run by the government. This included availability of trained scientific personnel for local project management, data collection and analysis by medical personnel, entomologists and demographers and teams of fieldworkers for the larviciding intervention. A detailed a priori assessment of the environment and vector breeding site ecology was essential to calculate personnel requirements and the need for larvicide and application apparel. In our case of a three-year project, solid funding for the whole duration was an important issue, which restricted the number of possible donors. We found the acquisition of qualified field personnel in fair numbers not to be always easy and training in application techniques and basic entomologic knowledge required several weeks of theoretical and practical formation. A further crucial point was to establish an effective quality control system that ensured the timely verification of larviciding success and facilitated in time data handling. While the experiences of running a larviciding campaign may vary globally, the experiences gained and the methods used in the Nouna health district may be employed in similar settings.Our observations highlight important components and strategies that should be taken into account when planning and running a similar larviciding program against malaria in a resource limited setting. A strong local partnership, meticulous planning with the possibility of ad-hoc adaption of project components and a reliable source of funding turned out to be crucial factors to successfully accomplish such a project.

Lingenfelser A.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Rydzanicz K.,Wrocław University | Kaiser A.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Becker N.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Becker N.,University of Heidelberg
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2010

This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex® WDG) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m2 was effective to achieve 100% mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa.

Becker N.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Becker N.,University of Heidelberg | Jost A.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Weitzel T.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2012

The present study examines the mating and breeding behavior as well as the genetic differentiation of Culex pipiens biotype pipiens and Cx. pipiens biotype molestus. Firstly, the mating behavior of Cx. pipiens s.l. originating from larval populations of various epigeous and hypogeous breeding sites in Germany was examined. Autogeny was prevailing in underground populations, occasionally found in semi-open water reservoirs like drains, rarely in containers, but never in ponds and ditches. Secondly, in a multilocus enzyme electrophoretic study the gene flow among seven geographic populations of Cx. pipiens biotype pipiens and the biotype molestus from several European countries was quantified. For comparison, five populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Asia, Africa and North America, three populations of Cx. torrentium (Germany) and other outgroup species were also examined. Thirdly, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase submit I gene of both biotypes from Germany was analysed by a polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and the ascertained DNA-sequences were aligned with genebank data of Russian populations. The population genetic analyses revealed much higher genetic distances between local populations of Cx. pipiens biotype pipiens and Cx. pipiens biotype molestus compared to the low differentiation between geographically remote populations within each taxon. The UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) analysis and F-statistics positioned the biotypes pipiens on one side and molestus on the other side in discrete monophyletic clusters. Gene flow between local populations of the biotypes pipiens and molestus could be shown to be lower than gene flow between geographically distant populations within each of the two groups, leading to the conclusion that Cx. pipiens biotype molestus could be a distinct taxon. Culex quinquefasciatus was genetically well-separated, in particular by the diagnostic enzyme marker malate dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). The genetic markers adenylatekinase and hydrobutyrate dehydrogenase allowed to screen thousands of morphologically similar samples of either Cx. pipiens s.l. and Cx torrentium and it could be shown that Cx. torrentium is a very frequent species in central Europe. © 2012 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

Jost H.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Jost H.,University of Heidelberg | Bialonski A.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Storch V.,University of Heidelberg | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2010

A molecular survey of 16,057 mosquitoes captured in Southwest Germany during the summer of 2009 demonstrated the presence of Sindbis virus (SINV) in Culex spp. and Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato. Phylogenetic analysis of the German SINV strains linked them with Swedish SINV strains, the causative agent of Ockelbo disease in humans. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Wernike K.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology | Jost H.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Jost H.,German Center for Infection Research | Becker N.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: In 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup was discovered near the German-Dutch border and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). So far, SBV genome has been detected in various field-collected Culicoides species; however, other members of the Simbu serogroup are also transmitted by mosquitoes. Findings. In the present study, approximately 50,000 mosquitoes of various species were collected during summer and early autumn 2011 in Germany. None of them tested positive in an SBV-specific real-time PCR. Conclusions: The absence of SBV in mosquitoes caught in 2011 in Germany suggests that they play no or only a negligible role in the spread of the disease. © 2014 Wernike et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jost H.,German Mosquito Control Association KABS | Bialonski A.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Schmetz C.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Gunther S.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

A molecular survey including 16,057 mosquitoes captured in Southwest Germany during the summer of 2009 showed the presence of Batai virus (BATV) in Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato. Until this survey, there was no evidence for circulation of BATV in Germany. Analysis of partial S, M, and L segments showed that the sequences from all three segments were most closely related to BATV, indicating that the virus has not undergone reassortment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship of the isolated BATV strain from Germany with strains from Slovakia, Ukraine, and Russia. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Nartey R.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Owusu-Dabo E.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Kruppa T.,Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine | Baffour-Awuah S.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | And 4 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Integrated Vector Control (IVC) remains the approach for managing the malaria-causing vector. The study investigated the contribution of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in the control of malaria by targeting the larvae and also mapped and documented major breeding sites in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Methods. Using a hand held GPS receiver unit, major breeding sites within the metropolis were mapped out during the larval survey. Mosquito larvae were then collected from the breeding sites and reared in an insectary to obtain an F1 generation for laboratory bioassays. The minimum effective dosage of Bti Water Dispersible Granular (WDG) formulation was determined by a series of bioassays. Based on the results obtained in the laboratory, the optimum effective dosage of Bti formulations against naturally occurring larvae of the indigenous mosquito species was determined through open field trials. Results: A total of 33 breeding sites were identified and geo-referenced during the larval surveys with the majority of the breeding sites located in the Asokwa sub-metropolis, Kumasi, Ghana. A Bti (3,000 International Toxic Unit (ITU)/mg) concentration of 0.026 mg/l resulted in 50% mortality whilst a concentration of 0.136 mg/l resulted in 95% mortality. Results from the open field trials with Bti showed that a dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is as effective as 0.4 kg/ha in suppressing late instars and resulting pupae. Conclusion: This study reveals that Bti at a very low dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is highly effective against Anopheles larvae and therefore offers viable options for the management of vector mosquitoes. Further research is needed to extend this to the field in order to determine its ability to reduce malaria incidence. © 2013 Nartey et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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