Time filter

Source Type

Smetana S.M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Smetana S.M.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V. | Smetana S.M.,University of Vechta | Crittenden J.C.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2014

Intensive urban development is increasing the demand for green areas within cities. Urban brownfields could become a source for green redevelopment areas. Sustainable redevelopment requires precise information on the environmental impact of the installation of different vegetation types. We performed a Life Cycle Analysis (SimaPro 7 software) of six lawn installation and maintenance scenarios relevant to the conditions of Georgia, USA and confirmed that a traditional turf sod lawn has the highest environmental impact levels. Xeriscaped lawn composed of bark mulch has high impact levels owing to the substantial transportation needs at the installation stage. Hydroseeded lawns (composed of natural materials) are a sustainable alternative for traditional turf sod lawns, especially when native plants are included (11-14 times lower impact level). Professional selection and use of native plants could provide environmental, social, and ecological options for urban brownfield redevelopment into green areas. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Roth S.,University of Hohenheim | Feichtinger J.,Robert Bosch GmbH | Hertel C.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: Characterize the response of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 cells to low-pressure low-temperature nitrogen-oxygen microwave plasma and identify repair processes during recovery.Methods and Results: Cells coated onto glass slides exhibited a biphasic plasma inactivation kinetics. Treatment with various plasmas and subsequent incubation in recovery medium prolonged the lag phase in a part of the survivors, during which the ability to grow on stress medium was recovered. This recovery strongly depended on transcriptional and translational processes and cell wall synthesis, as revealed by addition of specific inhibitors to the recovery medium. Genes involved in DNA repair, oxidative stress response, and cell wall synthesis were induced during recovery, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Damage to chromosomal DNA caused by plasma agents and repair during recovery was directly shown by quantitative PCR. Plasmas with less UV radiation emission were also effective in killing D. radiodurans cells but resulted in less DNA damage and lower induction of the investigated genes.Conclusions: The response of D. radiodurans to plasma indicates that DNA, proteins, and cell wall are primary targets of plasma finally leading to the cell death. Protein oxidation is more important for killing of D. radiodurans cells than of Bacillus subtilis spores. Thus, the contaminating biological material affects the plasma composition to be used for sterilization.Significance and Impact of the Study: The results in this study provide new insight into the interaction of plasma with bacterial cells. This knowledge contributes to the definition of useful parameters for novel plasma sterilization equipment to control process safety. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Smetana S.,University of Vechta | Smetana S.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V. | Tamasy C.,University of Vechta | Mathys A.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V. | And 2 more authors.
Regional Science Policy and Practice | Year: 2015

Currently there is no universal sustainability assessment methodology, which would be applicable by policy-makers for identification of regional development paths, policies' effectiveness and potential changes to sustainable development of regions. This paper reviews the best practices for sustainability assessment and identifies the needs of regional systems. Further, we propose the concept of regional sustainability assessment methodology (RSAM). It includes natural, social and economic capital transfer accounting through extended input-output tables and cyclicity analyses. RSAM reflects static and dynamic qualities of regional system for the assessment of development paths and policies effectiveness. Further methodological development of concept findings is needed. © 2016 The Author(s). Regional Science Policy and Practice © 2016 RSAI.

Jaeger H.,University of Vienna | Roth A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Toepfl S.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V. | Holzhauser T.,Paul Ehrlich Institute | And 7 more authors.
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Background The working group “Food Technology and Safety” of the DFG Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) deals with new technologies which are being developed or used to treat foods. Ohmic heating is a new process for heating food by means of direct application of current to the food. Compared to conventional heating methods, this process can achieve shorter heating times while avoiding hot surfaces and can reduce temperature gradients. The electrical, thermophysical and rheological properties of the products play an important role in achieving uniform heating. In addition to the product parameters, process parameters such as the current frequency used, the electrode material and the geometry of the treatment chamber are also relevant. Scope and approach On June 22nd 2015, the SKLM issued an assessment of the process for Ohmic heating of food in German. The English version was issued on December 14th, 2015. The objective of this statement was to describe the state of the research, to draw attention to critical points in the application and science-based further development of the process, and to define the need for research. Key findings and conclusions As with conventional heating, the effectiveness of ohmic heating as a preservation process depends on reaching and maintaining a certain temperature at each point of the food for a sufficient period of time to inactivate microorganisms. The physicochemical product properties are extremely important for achieving heating conditions that are as uniform as possible. Because the electric field strengths applied are low, mainly thermal effects come into play. However, some studies discuss potential additional synergistic or non-thermal inactivation effects of the electric field. As with other processing methods, the structure and concentration of ingredients and contaminants in foods may be altered during ohmic heating. Besides the thermal effects of ohmic heating, it is also necessary to pay attention to potential electrochemical reactions at the contact surface between electrodes and food as well as potential non-thermal effects of the electric field, depending on the process conditions. Therefore, process control becomes particularly important to prevent such effects, which are sometimes undesirable. Compared to conventional heating methods, the primary requirement in evaluating ohmic heating is a standardised means of acquiring the process control parameters. This includes, first and foremost, a space- and time-resolved temperature measurement that takes into account the product and electric field properties. It is absolutely necessary to carry out systematic studies while paying attention to the comparability with respect to product and process parameters as well as the system design. Consequently, the existing gaps in the data records are in part due to the insufficient comparability of the available studies. Moreover, it is necessary to analyze thermal and non-thermal as well as additional process-induced changes in the food and its ingredients. This applies particularly to the effect on the potential allergenicity of the food components. Thermal and non-thermal effects can be studied in a differentiated manner in simulation models. This is regarded as a promising approach for providing a model-like description of combination processes and for optimising process conditions as well. © 2016

Smetana S.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V. | Smetana S.,University of Vechta | Mathys A.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V. | Knoch A.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V. | Heinz V.,German Institute of Food Technologies DIL e.V.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2015

Purpose: Food production is among the highest human environmental impacting activities. Agriculture itself accounts for 70–85 % of the water footprint and 30 % of world greenhouse gas emissions (2.5 times more than global transport). Food production’s projected increase in 70 % by 2050 highlights the importance of environmental impacts connected with meat production. The production of various meat substitutes (plant-based, mycoprotein-based, dairy-based, and animal-based substitutes) aims to reduce the environmental impact caused by livestock. This article outlined the comparative analysis of meat substitutes’ environmental performance in order to estimate the most promising options. Methods: The study considered “cradle-to-plate” meal life cycle with the application of ReCiPe and IMPACT 2002+ methods. Inventory was based on literature and field data. Functional unit (FU) was 1 kg of a ready-to-eat meal at a consumer. The study evaluated alternative FU (the equivalent of 3.75 MJ energy content of fried chicken lean meat and 0.3 kg of digested dry matter protein content) as a part of sensitivity analysis. Results and discussion: Results showed the highest impacts for lab-grown meat and mycoprotein-based analogues (high demand for energy for medium cultivation), medium impacts for chicken (local feed), and dairy-based and gluten-based meat substitutes, and the lowest impact for insect-based and soy meal-based substitutes (by-products allocated). Alternative FU confirmed the worst performance of lab-grown and mycoprotein-based analogues. The best performing products were insect-based and soy meal-based substitutes and chicken. The other substitutes had medium level impacts. The results were very sensitive to the changes of FU. Midpoint impact category results were the same order of magnitude as a previously published work, although wide ranges of possible results and system boundaries made the comparison with literature data not reliable. Conclusions and recommendations: The results of the comparison were highly dependable on selected FU. Therefore, the proposed comparison with different integrative FU indicated the lowest impact of soy meal-based and insect-based substitutes (with given technology level development). Insect-based meat substitute has a potential to be more sustainable with the use of more advanced cultivation and processing techniques. The same is applicable to lab-grown meat and in a minor degree to gluten, dairy, and mycoprotein-based substitutes. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Discover hidden collaborations