German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF

Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Schollgen I.,University of Heidelberg | Schmiedek F.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2012

The importance of socioeconomic status (SES) for psychological functioning over the life span is increasingly acknowledged in psychological research. The Reserve Capacity Model by Gallo and Matthews (2003) suggests that SES is not only linked to physical health but also to the experience of positive and negative emotions. Moreover, due to differential amounts of psychosocial resources, cross-domain associations between emotions and health might differ according to SES. The present study examined age-related developments in positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and physical health, as well as dynamic associations between health and emotions in the second half of life. We looked at differences in these trajectories and their interrelationships according to education as one aspect of SES. We used data of up to three waves spanning 12 years from the nationally representative German Ageing Survey (N = 3,847, AgeT1 = 40-85 years). Applying multiple-group dual change score models, we found differential age-related change in PA and physical health, but not in NA, in two groups differing in level of education. NA did only predict change in physical health in low-educated individuals, whereas physical health was equally strongly related to change in PA in both education groups. These results indicate that SES not only affects changes in physical health and emotional functioning but also their interrelationships. © 2011 American Psychological Association.


Brose A.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Scheibe S.,University of Groningen | Schmiedek F.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Schmiedek F.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2013

Emotional stability, as indicated by low affect variability and low affective reactivity to daily events, for example, tends to increase across the adult life span. This study investigated a contextual explanation for such age differences, relating affect variability and affective reactivity to age-group- specific life contexts. A sample of 101 younger and 103 older adults reported daily stressors and negative affect across 100 days. Compared with younger adults, older adults (a) experienced fewer stressors overall, (b) had less heterogeneous stressor profiles, and (c) reported that stressors had less impact on daily routines. As expected, these contextual factors were relevant for interindividual differences in emotional stability. Multiple regression analyses revealed that reduced affect variability and affective reactivity in older adults were associated with these age-group specific life contexts. Moreover, matching younger and older adults on the contextual factors to explore the effects of context on age-group differences further provided support for the (partially) contextual explanation of age differences in emotional stability. Matched subgroups of younger and older adults that were comparable on contextual variables were identified. Affective variability, but not affective reactivity, was more similar in the matched subsamples than in the total samples of younger and older adults. We conclude that contexts in which affective experiences emerge require more attention when aiming to explain interindividual and age group differences in emotional stability. Moreover, future studies need to disentangle the extent to which contexts interact with active self-regulatory processes to shape affective experiences across adulthood.© 2012 American Psychological Association.


Kuhn S.,Ghent University | Kuhn S.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Schmiedek F.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Schmiedek F.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | And 7 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2013

Increases in striatal activity have been suggested to mediate training-related improvements in working-memory ability. We investigated the temporal dynamics of changes in task-related brain activity following training of working memory. Participants in an experimental group and an active control group, trained on easier tasks of a constant difficulty in shorter sessions than the experimental group, were measured before, after about 1 week, and after more than 50 days of training. In the experimental group an initial increase of working-memory related activity in the functionally defined right striatum and anatomically defined right and left putamen was followed by decreases, resulting in an inverted u-shape function that relates activity to training over time. Activity increases in the striatum developed slower in the active control group, observed at the second posttest after more than 50 days of training. In the functionally defined left striatum, initial activity increases were maintained after more extensive training and the pattern was similar for the two groups. These results shed new light on the relation between activity in the striatum (especially the putamen) and the effects of working memory training, and illustrate the importance of multiple measurements for interpreting effects of training on regional brain activity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Brose A.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Lovden M.,Karolinska Institutet | Schmiedek F.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Schmiedek F.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF
Emotion | Year: 2014

Positive affect is related to cognitive performance in multiple ways. It is associated with motivational aspects of performance, affective states capture attention, and information processing modes are a function of affect. In this study, we examined whether these links are relevant within individuals across time when they experience minor ups and downs of positive affect and work on cognitive tasks in the laboratory on a day-to-day basis. Using a microlongitudinal design, 101 younger adults (20-31 years of age) worked on 3 working memory tasks on about 100 occasions. Every day, they also reported on their momentary affect and their motivation to work on the tasks. In 2 of the 3 tasks, performance was enhanced on days when positive affect was above average. This performance enhancement was also associated with more motivation. Importantly, increases in task performance on days with above-average positive affect were mainly unrelated to variations in negative affect. This study's results are in line with between-person findings suggesting that high levels of well-being are associated with successful outcomes. They imply that success on cognitively demanding tasks is more likely on days when feeling happier. © 2013 American Psychological Association.


Gawrilow C.,University of Tübingen | Gawrilow C.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Kuhnhausen J.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Schmid J.,University of Tübingen | Stadler G.,Columbia University
Frontiers in Psychiatry | Year: 2014

The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. © 2014 Gawrilow, Kühnhausen, Schmid and Stadler.


Titz C.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Verhaeghen P.,Georgia Institute of Technology
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2010

In this meta-analysis, we examined the effects of aging on directed forgetting. A cue to forget is more effective in younger (d = 1.17) than in older (d = 0.81) adults. Directed-forgetting effects were larger (a) with the item method rather than with the list method, (b) with longer presentation times, (c) with longer postcue rehearsal times, (d) with single words rather than with verbal action phrases as stimuli, (e) with shorter lists, and (f) when recall rather than recognition was tested. Age effects were reliably larger when the item method was used, suggesting that these effects are mainly due to encoding differences. © 2010 American Psychological Association.


Konen T.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Konen T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Dirk J.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Dirk J.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2015

Background Recent studies have suggested substantial fluctuations of cognitive performance in adults both across and within days, but very little is known about such fluctuations in children. Children's sleep behavior might have an important influence on their daily cognitive resources, but so far this has not been investigated in terms of naturally occurring within-person variations in children's everyday lives. Methods In an ambulatory assessment study, 110 elementary school children (8-11 years old) completed sleep items and working memory tasks on smartphones several times per day in school and at home for 4 weeks. Parents provided general information about the children and their sleep habits. Results We identified substantial fluctuations in the children's daily cognitive performance, self-reported nightly sleep quality, time in bed, and daytime tiredness. All three facets were predictive of performance fluctuations in children's school and daily life. Sleep quality and time in bed were predictive of performance in the morning, and afternoon performance was related to current tiredness. The children with a lower average performance level showed a higher within-person coupling between morning performance and sleep quality. Conclusions Our findings contribute important insights regarding a potential source of performance fluctuations in children. The effect of varying cognitive resources should be investigated further because it might impact children's daily social, emotional, and learning-related functioning. Theories about children's cognitive and educational development should consider fluctuations on micro-longitudinal scales (e.g., day-to-day) to identify possible mechanisms behind long-term changes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.


Zylka J.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF
Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE 2012 | Year: 2012

Owing to the increasingly fast development of media and especially the advancement of computer technology in recent decades, the topic of ICT integration in classrooms is being intensively discussed on different levels and media educators argue about the missing link between school education and the use of ICT in schools. In this respect, ICT-related competencies of teachers are supposed to play an important role, but approaches assessing ICT-related competencies - in general as well as in terms of the teacher profession - rarely exist and, thus, extensive data on ICT literacy of teachers is missing. The presented article focuses on identifying ICT knowledge of German teachers and teacher trainees, taken as a central aspect of media and ICT literacy, and in this respect especially addresses age-related and gender issues as well as different levels of ICT knowledge.


Leonhardt A.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Konen T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Dirk J.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Schmiedek F.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Schmiedek F.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Psychological Assessment | Year: 2016

Research on the structure of children's affect is limited. It is possible that children's perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertnesstiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8-11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children's affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. © 2015 American Psychological Association.


Dorbath L.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF | Titz C.,German Institute for International Educational Research DIPF
GeroPsych: The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Focus-switching has recently been identified as an executive control process with differential age sensitivity. To date, the assumption of dissociable age effects is based on only two kinds of tasks constricting its conclusiveness. In a study with 85 younger (19-35 years) and 91 older adults (59-80 years), age effects were again dissociable in two alternative tasks with respect to the availability and the accessibility of representations. The results validate earlier findings that focus-switching is primarily affected in maintaining representations rather than in accessing them. © 2011 Hogrefe Publishing.

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