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München, Germany

Kastrati A.,German Heart Center Munich
Thrombosis Research

Despite improved clinical outcomes from dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin plus the CYP12 ADP receptor antagonist clopidogrel in patients undergoing coronary revascularisation, ex-vivo platelet function testing consistently reveals a proportion of patients with apparent resistance or non-response to clopidogrel loading and maintenance therapy who are at increased risk of coronary thrombosis. Treatment regimens using the newer CYP12 antagonists prasugrel and ticagrelor demonstrate improved ex-vivo platelet inhibition and superior clinical efficacy in large-scale clinical trials - even in patients demonstrating clopidogrel resistance. However, improved efficacy comes at the cost of an increased overall risk of bleeding for both drugs. Further analysis of the outcomes from large scale clinical studies suggests that individual patient sub-groups differ both in their liklehood of bleeding with newer anti-platelet agents and with regard to efficacy outcomes. Therefore when deciding anti-platelet regimens in suspected acute coronary syndrome, particular consideration must be given to patient's risk of thrombosis (STEMI, previous stent thrombosis), the procedure (complex PCI, thrombus in-situ, strategy of pre-treatment), and factors affecting safety (patient age, patient weight, previous stroke, liklehood of surgical revascularisation). Placing the focus on individualised patient risk-benefit assessment with appropriate use of platelet function testing when indicated, in combination with the ongoing assessment of prasugrel and ticagrelor in larger numbers of patients should be the key strategies governing use of dual anti-platelet therapy. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bleiziffer S.,German Heart Center Munich
The Journal of heart valve disease

The study aim was to investigate the incidence of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) with new catheter valves, and its influence on the patients' clinical state. At present, few echocardiographic data are available on the incidence and impact of PPM with the CoreValve and Sapien prostheses for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The reliability of effective orifice area (EOA) measurements was assured by awaiting an interval of six months after TAVI. Of 256 survivors after TAVI, 149 complete echocardiographic data sets were available for the assessment of the indexed EOA (iEOA). In total, 106 CoreValve prostheses and 43 Sapien prostheses were implanted in this high-risk cohort (mean age 81 +/- 6 years, mean logistic EuroSCORE 20 +/- 13%). The overall incidence of PPM (iEOA < 0.85 cm2/m2) was 61%. Patients with a larger body surface area were more likely to develop PPM (p = 0.001), while the prosthesis type, native annulus diameter, preoperative EOA, gender and prosthesis size had no influence. The mean aortic gradient was significantly higher in patients with PPM. A reduction in the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was seen in all patients, without significant differences between groups. There were no differences in postoperative NYHA class or self-assessed health state between patients with or without PPM. PPM was common after TAVI in the presented cohort, presumably because the native calcium masses narrow the outflow area available for blood flow. As expected for low gradients, there was no impairment of left ventricular dimension regression or clinical state of the patients, even if severe PPM was present. Based on the presented data, it is assumed that PPM might be less relevant in TAVI patients. Source

Meisner H.,German Heart Center Munich
Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon

Long periods of experimental research signify the struggle for the goal to substitute the functions of heart and lungs by a machine. In 1931, John Heysham Gibbon, a young surgeon in Boston began animal experiments concentrating on this task. After almost 20 years he succeeded, in May 1953, he performed the first successful open heart operation using a heart-lung machine in the world in Philadelphia. Almost simultaneously, a team of surgeons around Clarence Walton Lillehei in Minneapolis had the same intentions, yet using a different approach. They applied the method of cross-circulation where a parent of the sick child served as temporary placenta like a biological oxygenator. Their first successful operation occurred in March 1954. All over the world, many scientists worked intensely on that subject, but did not succeed. However, these two great personalities, persistent and ingenious, reached the same scientific target with very different methods. Thus, both created the foundation for modern cardiac surgery, which is now performed daily all over the world. © 2014 Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York. Source

Thiele H.,University of Leipzig | Zeymer U.,Institute For Herzinfarktforschung | Neumann F.-J.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Ferenc M.,Asklepios Clinic Langen Seligenstadt | And 16 more authors.
The Lancet

Background In current international guidelines the recommendation for intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) use has been downgraded in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction on the basis of registry data. In the largest randomised trial (IABP-SHOCK II), IABP support did not reduce 30 day mortality compared with control. However, previous trials in cardiogenic shock showed a mortality benefi t only at extended follow-up. The present analysis therefore reports 6 and 12 month results. Methods The IABP-SHOCK II trial was a randomised, open-label, multicentre trial. Patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction who were undergoing early revascularisation and optimum medical therapy were randomly assigned (1:1) to IABP versus control via a central web-based system. The primary effi cacy endpoint was 30 day all-cause mortality, but 6 and 12 month follow-up was done in addition to quality-of-life assessment for all survivors with the Euroqol-5D questionnaire. A masked central committee adjudicated clinical outcomes. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00491036. Findings Between June 16, 2009, and March 3, 2012, 600 patients were assigned to IABP (n=301) or control (n=299). Of 595 patients completing 12 month follow-up, 155 (52%) of 299 patients in the IABP group and 152 (51%) of 296 patients in the control group had died (relative risk [RR] 1·01, 95% CI 0·86-1·18, p=0·91). There were no signifi cant diff erences in reinfarction (RR 2·60, 95% CI 0·95-7·10, p=0·05), recurrent revascularisation (0·91, 0·58- 1·41, p=0·77), or stroke (1·50, 0·25-8·84, p=1·00). For survivors, quality-of-life measures including mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression did not diff er signifi cantly between study groups. Interpretation In patients undergoing early revas cularisation for myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, IABP did not reduce 12 month all-cause mortality. Funding German Research Foundation; German Heart Research Foundation; German Cardiac Society; Arbeitsgemeinschaft Leitende Kardiologische Krankenhausärzte; University of Leipzig-Heart Centre; Maquet Cardiopulmonary; Teleflex Medical. Source

Thiele H.,University of Leipzig | Zeymer U.,Institute For Herzinfarktforschung | Neumann F.-J.,Heart Center Bad Krozingen | Ferenc M.,Heart Center Bad Krozingen | And 15 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: In current international guidelines, intraaortic balloon counterpulsation is considered to be a class I treatment for cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. However, evidence is based mainly on registry data, and there is a paucity of randomized clinical trials. METHODS: In this randomized, prospective, open-label, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 600 patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction to intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP group, 301 patients) or no intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (control group, 299 patients). All patients were expected to undergo early revascularization (by means of percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery) and to receive the best available medical therapy. The primary efficacy end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. Safety assessments included major bleeding, peripheral ischemic complications, sepsis, and stroke. RESULTS: A total of 300 patients in the IABP group and 298 in the control group were included in the analysis of the primary end point. At 30 days, 119 patients in the IABP group (39.7%) and 123 patients in the control group (41.3%) had died (relative risk with IABP, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.17; P = 0.69). There were no significant differences in secondary end points or in process-of-care measures, including the time to hemodynamic stabilization, the length of stay in the intensive care unit, serum lactate levels, the dose and duration of catecholamine therapy, and renal function. The IABP group and the control group did not differ significantly with respect to the rates of major bleeding (3.3% and 4.4%, respectively; P = 0.51), peripheral ischemic complications (4.3% and 3.4%, P = 0.53), sepsis (15.7% and 20.5%, P = 0.15), and stroke (0.7% and 1.7%, P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: The use of intraaortic balloon counterpulsation did not significantly reduce 30-day mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction for whom an early revascularization strategy was planned. (Funded by the German Research Foundation and others; IABP-SHOCK II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00491036.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

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